L>Chapter 4Chapter 495psychopharmacologyThe research of the effects of drugs on the concerned system and on behavior.drug effectThe changes a drug produces in an organism\"s physiological processes and also behavior.sites that actionThe places at which molecule of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, therefore affecting part biochemical procedures of this cells.pharmacokineticsThe procedure by i m sorry drugs are absorbed, dispersed within the body, metabolized, and also excreted.intravenous injection/IV injectionInjection of a substance straight into a vein.intraperitoneal injection/IP injectionInjection the a substance right into the peritoneal cavity--the space that surrounding the stomach, intestines, liver, and also other abdominal organs.intramuscular injection/IM injectionInjection that a substance right into a muscle.subcutaneous injection/SC injectionInjection that a substance right into the space beneath the skin.oral administrationAdministration that a substance right into the mouth, so the it is swallowed.sublingual administrationAdministration the a substance by place it beneath the tongue.intrarectal administrationAdministration the a substance right into the rectum.inhalationAdministration that a vaporous substance right into the lungs.topical administrationAdministration that a substance straight onto the skin or mucous membrane.intracerebral administrationAdministration that a substance directly into the brain.intracerebroventricular administration/ICV administrationAdministration that a substance right into one the the cerebral ventricles.depot bindingBinding the a drug with assorted tissues of the human body or with proteins in the blood.albuminA protein discovered in the blood; offer to transport free fatty acids and also can bind with some lipid-soluble drugs.dose-response curveA graph the the size of an impact of a drug as a duty of the amount medicine administered.therapeutic indexThe ratio between the dose that produces the wanted effect in 50 percent the the animals and also the dose the produces toxic effects in 50 percent of the animals.affinityThe readiness with which two molecules join together.toleranceA to decrease in the effectiveness of a medicine that is administered repeatedly.sensitizationAn increase in the effectiveness of a medicine that is administered repeatedly.withdrawal symptom/withdrawal symptomsThe illustration of symptom opposite come those produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and also then all of sudden no longer taken.placeboAn inert substance offered to an organism in lieu of a physiologically active drug; used experimentally to regulate for the effects of mere management of a drug.antagonistA medicine that opposes or inhibits the impacts of a particular neurotransmitter ~ above the postsynaptic cell.agonistA drug that facilitates the effects of a details neurotransmitter top top the postsynaptic cell.direct agonistA drug that binds with and also activates a receptor.receptor blockerA drug that binds through a receptor but does no activate it ; prevents the natural ligand from binding v the receptor.direct antagonistA synonym for receptor blocker.noncompetitive bindingBinding of a drug to a website on a receptor; does no interfere with the binding site for the primary ligand.inverse agonistA medicine that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and also interferes through the activity of the receptor; does no interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.indirect agonistA medicine that attaches come a binding website on a receptor and also facilitates the activity of the receptor; does not interfere v the binding website for the major ligand.presynaptic heteroreceptorA receptor situated in the membrane that a terminal button that receives input from another terminal switch by method of one axoaxonic synapse; binds through the neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic terminal button.acetyl-CoAA cofactor that gives acetate for the synthetic of acetylcholine.choline acetyltransferase/ChATThe enzyme the transfers the acetate ion native acetyl coenzyme A to choline, producing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.botulinum toxinAn acetylcholine antagonist: avoids release by terminal buttons.black widow spider venomA poison produced by the black widow spider that triggers the relax of acetylcholine.neostigmineA medicine that inhibits the task of acetylcholinesterase.hemicholiniumA drug that inhibits the absorb of choline.nicotinic receptorAn ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is engendered by nicotine and also blocked through curare.muscarinic receptorA metabotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated by muscarine and also blocked by atropine.atropineA medicine that blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.curareA drug that blocks nicotine castle acetylcholine receptors.monoamineA course of amines that has indolamines such together serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine norepinephrine, and also epinephrine.catecholamine/catecholaminesA class of amines that includes the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and also epinephrine.dopamine/DAA neurotransmitter; among the catecholamines.L-DOPAThe levorotatory kind of DOPA; the precursor of the catecholamines; frequently used come treat Parkinson\"s disease because the its result as a dopamine agonist.nigrostriatal systemA system of neurons originating in the substantia nigra and terminating in the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen).mesolimbic systemA system of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the cell core accumbens, amygdala, and also hippocampus.mesocortical systemA device of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the prefrontal cortex.Parkinson\"s diseaseA neurological disease characterized by tremors, rigidity of the limbs, bad balance, and challenge in initiating movements; resulted in by degeneration the the nigrostriatal system.AMPTA medicine that block the task of tyrosine hydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of the catecholamines.reserpineA medicine that interferes through the storage of monoamines in synaptic vesicles.apomorphineA medicine that block dopamine autoreceptors at low doses; at higher doses block postsynaptic receptors together well.methylphenidate/cocaineA medicine that inhibits the reuptake of dopamine.monoamine oxidase/MAOA course of enzymes that destroy the monoamines: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.deprenylA medicine that block the task of MAO-B; acts as a dopamine agonist.chlorpromazineA medicine that reduce the symptom of schizophrenia by prevent dopamine D2 receptors.clozapineA drug that to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia, apparently by prevent dopamine D4 receptors.norepinephrine/NEOne the the catecholamines; a neurotransmitter discovered in the mind and in the sympathetic division of the autonomic worried system.epinephrineOne of the catecholamines; a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; serves also as a neurotransmitter in the brain.fusaric acidA drug that inhibits the task of the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and also thus block the production of norepinephrine.moclobemideA drug that blocks the activity of MAO-A; acts together a noradrenergic agonist.locus coeruleusA dark-colored group of noradrenergic cabinet bodies located in the pons close to the rostral finish of the floor of the fourth ventricle.axonal varicositiesEnlarged regions along the length of an axon the contain synaptic vesicles and release a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator.serotonin/5-HTAn indolamine transmitter substance; likewise called 5-hydroxytryptamine.PCPAA drug that inhibits the task of tryptophan hydroxylase and also thus interferes through the synthesis of 5-HT.D systemA system of serotonergic neurons that originates in the dorsal raphe nucleus; that axonal fibers are thin, with spindle-shaped varicosities that do not show up to kind synapses with various other neurons.M systemA device of serotonergic neurons the originates in the average raphe nucleus; the axonal fibers space thick and rounded and also appear to form conventional synapses with other neurons.fluoxetineA drug that inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT.fenfluramineA medicine that stimulates the relax of 5-HT.LSDA drug that stimulates 5-HT2A receptors.glutamateAn amino acid; the most essential excitatory transmitter problem in the brain.NMDA receptorA committed ionotropic glutamate receptor the controls a calcium channel that is typically blocked by Mg2+ ions; has actually several other binding sites.AMPA receptorAn ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a salt channel; stimulated by AMPA and blocked through CNQX.kainate receptorAn ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a salt channel; created by kainic acid and also blocked by CNQX.metabotropic receptorA metabotropic glutamate receptor.PCPPhencyclidine; a medicine that binds through the PCP binding site of the NMDA receptor and serves as an train station agonist.GABAAn amino acid; the most essential inhibitory transmitter problem in the brain.allylglycineA drug that inhibits the activity of GAD and also thus block the synthetic of GABA.muscimolA direct agonist because that the GABA binding website on the GABAA receptor.bicucullineA straight antagonist for the GABA binding site on the GABAA receptor.benzodiazepine/benzodiazepinesA classification of anxiolytic drugs; an indirect agonist because that the GABAA receptor.anxiolyticAn anxiety-reducing effect.beta-CCMA straight agonist because that the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor.glycineAn amino acid; vital inhibitory transmitter problem in the lower brain stem and spinal cord.strychnineA direct agonist for the glycine receptor.endogenous opioid/endogenous opioidsA class of peptides secreted by the brain that act together opiates.enkephalinOne that the endogenous opioids.naloxoneA medicine that blocks opioid receptors.anandamideA lipid; the endogenous ligand for receptors the bind with THC, the active ingredient that marijuana.adenosineA nucleoside; a combination of ribose and adenine; serves together a neuromodulator in the brain.caffeineA drug that blocks adenosene receptors.nitric oxide/NOA gas developed by cells in the concerned system; provided as a method of communication in between cells.nitric oxide synthaseThe enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide.