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Introduction

Bone markings space invaluable come the identification of individual bones and bony pieces and assist in the understanding of functional and evolutionary anatomy. They are offered by clinicians and also surgeons, especially orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and anatomists. Return the untrained eye might overlook bone markings together contours the the bone, they space not together simple. Bone markings play vital role in human and animal anatomy and physiology. The functionality of bone markings ranges from allowing joints come slide previous each other or lock skeletal in place, providing structural assistance to muscle and connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and also protection come nerves, vessels, and also connective tissue. Understanding the prestige of bone markings offers a brand-new appreciation and also understanding that bony anatomy and its useful relationships v soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - spicy bony angulations that may serve as bony or soft tissue attachments but often are used for an accurate anatomical description. Examples encompass the superior, inferior, and also acromial angle of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually describes the largest, most prominent segment of bone. Examples incorporate the diaphysis or column of lengthy bones prefer the femur and humerus.

Condyle - refers to a big prominence, which regularly provides structural assistance to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt that the pressure exerted indigenous the joint. Examples encompass the knee joint (hinge joint), developed by the femoral lateral and medial condyles, and also the tibial lateral and also medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has an occipital condyle i beg your pardon articulates through atlas(C1) and also accounts for about 25 degrees of cervical flexion and also extension. 

Crest - A raised or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are frequently the sites wherein connective tissue attaches muscle to bone. The iliac stakes is discovered on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main part of the shaft of a long bone. Lengthy bones, including the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have actually a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prestige that sit atop that a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and also connective organization to bone, offering support come this musculoskeletal system. Examples incorporate the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and also lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, typically at the bone"s proximal and distal poles. That usually has actually a bigger diameter 보다 the shaft (diaphysis). The epiphysis is crucial for bone growth because it sits nearby to the physeal line, also known as the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that develops a share with another flat bone or one more facet, together creating a gliding joint. Instances can be watched in the facet joints of the vertebrae, which enable for flexion and extension that the spine. 

Fissure - An open slit in a bone the usually homes nerves and blood vessels. Examples encompass superior and also inferior orbit fissure.

Foramen - A hole through which nerves and blood ship pass. Examples encompass supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and also mental foramen on the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Here it may receive an additional articulating bone or act to support mind structures. Examples include trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface ar that runs along the length of a ship or nerve, providing room to protect against compression by surrounding muscle or exterior forces. Examples encompass a radial groove and the groove for the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms component of a joint. It is separated from the obelisk of the bone by the neck. The head is usually spanned in hyaline cartilage within a synovial capsule. It is the main articulating surface with the nearby bone, forming a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The sheet of any flat bone. It can be offered to specify a bone"s borders accurately. For example, the sheet of the temporal bone articulating with the occipital bone is referred to as the occipital margin the the temporal bone. And also vice versa, the leaf of the occipital bone articulating v the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin that the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends within the bone, i m sorry may provide passage and protection to nerves, vessels, and also even sound. Examples include external acoustic meatus and internal hear meatus.

Neck - The segment in between the head and also the pillar of a bone. The is often demarcated indigenous the head by the presence of the physeal heat in pediatric patients and the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. The is regularly separated right into the surgical neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which might represent the old epiphyseal plate, is often demarcated by its attachment to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often more distal and is demarcated through the website on the neck that is most generally fractured. Because that example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck runs obliquely indigenous the higher tuberosity to just inferior come the humeral head. The operation neck operation horizontally and a few centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone which often, however not always, gives stabilization to an adjacent articulating bone. The articulating bone will slide into and out that the notch, guiding the range of activity of the joint. Examples encompass the trochlear notch top top the ulna, radial notch the the ulna, suprasternal notch, and the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved component of a bone that offers structural assistance to the rest of the bone. Examples encompass the superior/inferior pubic ramus and also ramus the the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any type of organ or tissue. Examples encompass paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous process - A raised, sharp elevation the bone where muscles and connective tissue attach. The is different than a normal process in that a spinous process is much more pronounced.

Trochanter - A huge prominence ~ above the next of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and most thick connective tissues affix to the trochanter. The most notable examples are the greater and also lesser trochanters that the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prestige where muscles and also connective organization attach. Its role is similar to the of a trochanter. Examples incorporate the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prominence where connective organization attach. Examples incorporate the greater and also lesser tubercle of the humerus.