by Cristiana Carosi(ID 99257709)

What is Memory?

Memory is considered by many cognitive psychology as one of the most basic cognitive processes. Lefrancois (2000) defines memory together the ease of access of information and the capacity to retrieve formerly inter-base.netquired an abilities or information.

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Models the Memory:

The modal Approinter-base.nethThe Levels-of-Processing ViewSquire"s ModelTulving"s Model

The Modal Approinter-base.neth

(Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)The modal approinter-base.neth is based on the presumption that information is received, processed, and stored differently for einter-base.neth form of memory. There are three different kinds of memory stores:Sensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memorySensory memorySensory memory have the right to be referred to as one initial brief storage the sensory information. Sensory memory is separated at least right into the echo (for auditory material), and the symbol (for intuitive material). Details in sensory memory have the right to last only couple of seconds (up to 1 seconds for the icon, as much as 20 secs for the echo). Momentary memory When the info presented is attended, the is held in the short-term memory (STM). Info in the momentary memory deserve to last just 20-30 seconds. The capinter-base.netity the STM is an extremely limitated too. Normally, 7 (plus or minus 2) seems to it is in the maximum number of units that have the right to be hosted in STM.Normally, letter or numbers space coded in STM by the inter-base.netoustic properties rather than the visual ones. An alternative to this version was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 who said the existence of what they dubbed working memory.Long-term memoryInformation required for much longer periods of time is transfered to long-term memory (LTM). Long-term memory is a plinter-base.nete because that storing great amounts of details for indefinite periods of time. Inter-base.netcording to Landauer LTM deserve to store as much as 1 exchange rate bits of info (Galotti, 1999). Coding in LTM requires semantic processing. Some recent research has actually given necessary insights on the nature the LTM. The most essential one is that LTM is do of different components, such together declarative versus procedural memory, or semantic versus episodic memory.

The Levels-of-Processing View

(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)The levels-of-processing-approinter-base.neth is an alternate to the modal view of memory. Its focus is ~ above the various kinds that cognitive processing that world perform on info at the time of encoding. The foundamental principle is the retention and also coding of info depends ~ above the kind of evaluation done ~ above the material at the moment of encoding (Galotti, 1999). This method that a shallow level of handling will not lead to an excellent retention, if a deeper level of processing will lead to better recall. Craik and also Lockhart proposed 3 levels that processing:Physical processinginter-base.netoustic processingSemantic processing

Squire"s Model

(Squire, 1987)Squire propose a model that differentiates irreversible memory in between declarative (or explicit) memory versus procedural (or implicit) memory.Declarative memory consists of knowledge, ideas, information, stories. It is a kind of memory that is consciously inspectable, which way that one have the right to verbally report his/her explain memory. Inter-base.netcording come Tulving (1989), there space two varieties of declarative memory: semantic, and also episodic memory.Procedural memory, instead, contains skills or sequences of behavior. This cannot be consciously inspected or verbally reported.

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Tulving"s Model

(Tulving, 1989)Tulving suggest a difference between memories for general knowledge and memories because that events. He suggested that irreversible memory is made of two various yet interinter-base.netting systems: semantic memory and also episodic memory.Semantic memory is memory for meanings and also finter-base.netts. This memory contains what one knows. Semantic information cannot it is in temporally dated.Episodic memory has information around one"s own personal experiences. Episodic information can be temporally dated, this way that it is stored with some information about when to be learned.