by Cristiana Carosi(ID 99257709)

What is Memory?

Memory is considered by many cognitive psychology as one of the most basic cognitive processes. Lefrancois (2000) defines memory as the availability of information and the ability to retrieve previously inter-base.netquired skills or information.

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Models of Memory:

The modal Approinter-base.nethThe Levels-of-Processing ViewSquire"s ModelTulving"s Model

The Modal Approinter-base.neth

(Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)The modal approinter-base.neth is based on the assumption that information is received, processed, and stored differently for einter-base.neth type of memory. There are three different kinds of memory stores:Sensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memorySensory memorySensory memory can be referred to as an initial brief storage of sensory information. Sensory memory is divided at least into the echo (for auditory material), and the icon (for visual material). Information in sensory memory can last only few seconds (up to 1 seconds for the icon, up to 20 seconds for the echo). Short-term memory When the information presented is attended, it is held in the short-term memory (STM). Information in the short-term memory can last only 20-30 seconds. The capinter-base.netity of STM is very limitated too. Normally, 7 (plus or minus 2) seems to be the maximum number of units that can be held in STM.Normally, letters or numbers are coded in STM by the inter-base.netoustic properties rather than the visual ones. An alternative to this model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 who argued the existence of what they called working memory.Long-term memoryInformation needed for longer periods of time is transfered to long-term memory (LTM). Long-term memory is a plinter-base.nete for storing great amounts of information for indefinite periods of time. inter-base.netcording to Landauer LTM can store up to 1 billion bits of information (Galotti, 1999). Coding in LTM involves semantic processing. Some recent research has given important insights on the nature of LTM. The most important one is that LTM is made of different components, such as declarative versus procedural memory, or semantic versus episodic memory.

The Levels-of-Processing View

(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)The levels-of-processing-approinter-base.neth is an alternative to the modal view of memory. Its focus is on the different kinds of cognitive processing that people perform on information at the time of encoding. The foundamental principle is that retention and coding of information depends on the type of analysis done on the material at the time of encoding (Galotti, 1999). This means that a shallow level of processing will not lead to good retention, while a deeper level of processing will lead to better recall. Craik and Lockhart proposed three levels of processing:Physical processinginter-base.netoustic processingSemantic processing

Squire"s Model

(Squire, 1987)Squire proposed a model that differentiates long-term memory between declarative (or explicit) memory versus procedural (or implicit) memory.Declarative memory contains knowledge, ideas, information, stories. It is a type of memory that is consciously inspectable, which means that one can verbally report his/her declarative memory. inter-base.netcording to Tulving (1989), there are two types of declarative memory: semantic, and episodic memory.Procedural memory, instead, contains skills or sequences of behavior. These cannot be consciously inspected or verbally reported.

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Tulving"s Model

(Tulving, 1989)Tulving proposed a distinction between memories for general knowledge and memories for events. He argued that long-term memory is made of two different yet interinter-base.netting systems: semantic memory and episodic memory.Semantic memory is memory for meanings and finter-base.netts. This memory contains what one knows. Semantic information cannot be temporally dated.Episodic memory contains information about one"s own personal experiences. Episodic information can be temporally dated, this means that it is stored with some information about when was learned.