all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

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concepta psychological grouping of comparable objects, events, ideas, or people.
prototypea mental picture or finest example the a category. Matching new items come a prototype gives a quick and also easy method for sorting items right into categories (as once comparing feathered creatures come a prototypical bird, such together a robin).
algorithma methodical, logical dominance or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the commonly speedier—but also much more error-prone—use of heuristics
heuristica an easy thinking strategy the often enables us to make judgments and also solve troubles efficiently; commonly speedier but also an ext error-prone 보다 algorithms.
insighta sudden and also often novel currently of the solution to a problem; that contrasts through strategy-based solutions.
creativitythe ability to create novel and an important ideas
confirmation biasa tendency to search for information that support our preconceptions and also to overlook or distort contradictory evidence.
fixationthe inability to watch a problem from a brand-new perspective, by employing a various mental set.
mental seta tendency to method a problem in one details way, regularly a means that has been effective in the past.
functional fixednessthe propensity to think the things just in terms of their usual supplies or purposes; one impediment to trouble solving.
representativeness heuristicjudging the likelihood of things in state of exactly how well lock seem come match specific prototypes; may lead us to neglect other relevant information.
availability heuristicestimating the likelihood that events based upon their existence in ours memory; if instances come easily to mind (perhaps because of your vividness), us presume such events are common.
overconfidencethe tendency to be an ext certain than correct—to evaluate the accuracy of ours beliefs and judgments
belief perseveranceclinging come one’s early stage conceptions after the communication on which castle were formed has been discredited.
intuitionan effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted through explicit, mindful reasoning.
framingthe means an concern is posed; just how an issue is presented can significantly influence decisions and judgments.
languageour spoken, written, or signed words and the methods we combine them to connect meaning.
phonemein language, the the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morphemein a language, the the smallest unit the carries meaning; might be a word or a component of a word (such together a prefix).
grammarin a language, a device of rules that allows us to interact with and also understand others.
semanticsthe collection of rules whereby we derive an interpretation from morphemes, words, and sentences in a offered language; also, the examine of meaning.
syntaxthe rules because that combining words right into grammatically wise sentences in a provided language.
babbling stagebeginning at around 4 months, the stage of speech breakthrough in i beg your pardon the child spontaneously utters assorted sounds at an initial unrelated come the family language.
one-word stagethe stage in speech development, from around age 1 come 2, throughout which a kid speaks greatly in solitary words.
two-word stagebeginning around age 2, the phase in speech advance during which a son speaks greatly statements consisted of of only a pair of words.

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telegraphic speechearly speech phase in i beg your pardon a son speaks using mostly nouns and also verbs such together “go car”.
linguistic determinismWhorf’s hypothesis that language identify the means we think