Nancy Schimelpfening, multiple sclerosis is the administrator because that the non-profit depression support team Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has actually a lifetime of endure with depression, experiencing firsthand how damaging this condition can be." data-inline-tooltip="true">Nancy Schimelpfening

Nancy Schimelpfening, multiple sclerosis is the administrator because that the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has actually a life time of endure with depression, enduring firsthand how destructive this illness can be.

You are watching: According to freudian theory, depression results in part from:

Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief that Verywell Mind. She's likewise a psychotherapist, the writer of the bestselling publication "13 things Mentally strong People Don't Do," and the host of The Verywell mind Podcast." data-inline-tooltip="true">Amy Morin, LCSW

Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief the Verywell Mind. She's likewise a psychotherapist, the author of the bestselling publication "13 things Mentally solid People Don't Do," and also the hold of The Verywell mental Podcast.


While no single person can be attributed with the discovery of depression, there space many great thinkers whose concepts contributed—and continue to contribute—to our farming knowledge the what this condition really is. In bespeak to far better understand how researchers, doctors, and also psychologists think around this problem today, it deserve to be useful to take it a look back at the history of depression.

Earliest account of Depression

The earliest composed accounts that what is now known as depression showed up in the second millennium B.C.E. In Mesopotamia. In this writings, depression was disputed as a spiritual fairly than a physical condition. Choose other mental illnesses, it was believed to be brought about by demonic possession. As such, the was dealt with by priests rather than physicians.

The idea that depression being resulted in by demons and evil spirits has existed in numerous cultures, consisting of those the the ancient Greeks, Romans, Babylonians, Chinese, and Egyptians. Therefore belief, that was often treated with methods such together beatings, physical restraint, and starvation in an attempt to journey the demons out.

While many believed that demons were the root cause of depression, there were a variety of ancient Greek and Roman medical professionals who thought that depression was a biological and also psychological illness.

Greek and Roman doctors provided therapeutic techniques such together gymnastics, massage, diet, music, baths, and also a medication containing poppy extract and donkey"s milk come treat their patients.

ancient Greek and also Roman viewpoint

Hippocrates, a Greek physician, said that depression (initially called "melancholia") was brought about by four imbalanced human body fluids referred to as humours: yellow bile, black color bile, phlegm, and also blood. special, he assumed that melancholia was resulted in by too lot black bile in the spleen. Hippocrates" therapies of choice included bloodletting, baths, exercise, and diet.

A roman inn philosopher and statesman named Cicero, in contrast, believed that melancholia had psychological reasons such as rage, fear, and also grief.

In the last years before the usual era, despite some steps toward believing in more physical and mental causes of depression, it was still a very common belief among even educated Romans the depression and other psychological illnesses were led to by demons and by the fury of the gods.

The common Era

During the typical era, numerous barbaric and primitive therapies for depression continued to be the norm. Cornelius Celsus (25 BCE come 50 CE) reportedly recommended the very harsh therapies of starvation, shackles, and beating in cases of psychological illness.

A Persian doctor called Rhazes (865–925 CE), however, did view mental illness as arising from the brain. He recommended such treatments as baths and also a very early kind of actions therapy which connected positive rewards for proper behavior.

During the center Ages, religion, especially Christianity, conquered European thinking on psychological illness, with civilization again attributing it to the devil, demons, or witches. Exorcisms, drowning, and burning were renowned treatments of the time. Many world were locked increase in so-called "lunatic asylums."

While some doctors continued to look for physical reasons for depression and also other psychological illnesses, they were in the minority.

During the Renaissance, which started in 14th century Italy and spread throughout Europe during the 16th and also 17th centuries, witch hunts and also executions the the mentally ill were still fairly common; however, some medical professionals were revisiting the idea of mental illness having a natural rather 보다 a superordinary cause.

In the year 1621, Robert Burton released "Anatomy that Melancholy,"in which that outlined the social and psychological causes of depression (such as poverty, fear, and also loneliness). In this book, that made recommendations prefer diet, exercise, travel, purgatives (to clean toxins from the body), bloodletting, herbs, and also music treatment in the therapy of depression.

The period of knowledge

During the 18th and also 19th centuries, likewise called the period of Enlightenment, depression became viewed together a weak in temperament the was inherited and also could not be changed. The an outcome of these ideas was that world with this problem should it is in shunned or locked up.

During the latter part of the period of Enlightenment, doctors began to imply the idea the aggression was at the root of the condition.

Treatments such as exercise, diet, music,and drugs were now supported and doctors said that the was essential to talk about your problems with her friends or a doctor.

Other doctors of the moment spoke that depression together resulting from interior conflicts in between what friend want and also what you know is right. And also yet rather sought to identify the physical reasons of this condition.

Treatments during this duration included water immersion (staying underwater for lengthy as possible without drowning) and also using a turn stool to placed the brain contents ago into their correct positions. Added treatments included:

Benjamin Franklin is also reported to have occurred an early kind of electroshock therapy during this time.

The 19th and also 20th Century

In 1895, the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin became the first to differentiate manic depression, what we now know as bipolar disorder, as condition separate from dementia praecox (the term for schizophrenia in ~ the time).Around this same time, psychodynamic theory andpsychoanalysis—the form of psychotherapy based upon this theory—were developed.

Psychoanalytic Explanations

In 1917, Sigmund Freud wrote about mourning and melancholia whereby he theorized around melancholia together being a response to loss, either genuine (for example, a death) or symbolic (such as failure to achieve the desired goal).

Freud further thought that a person"s unconscious anger over your loss leads to self-hatred and self-destructive behavior. The felt that psychoanalysis could assist a person resolve this unconscious conflicts, to reduce self-destructive thoughts and behaviors.

behavioral Explanations

The behaviorist activity in psychology contributed to the idea that habits are learned v experience. The behaviorists garbage the idea that depression was brought about by unconscious forces and instead suggested that it was a learned behavior.

Just together these depressive actions had been learned, lock could likewise be unlearned. Principles of learning such as association and reinforcement can be offered to establish and also strengthen much more effective, healthy behaviors.

While psychologists today acknowledge that endure is not the sole determinant that behavior, behaviorism caused the advance of a number of treatment ideologies that continue to play an important role in the therapy of depression and other mental disorders.

Cognitive Explanations

During the 1960s and 1970s, cognitive theory of depression started to emerge. The cognitive philosopher Aaron Beck proposed the the means that people interpret an unfavorable events could contribute to symptoms of depression.

Beck said that an adverse automatic thoughts, negative self-beliefs, and errors in processing details were responsible because that depressive symptoms.

According come Beck, depressed civilization tend to immediately interpret occasions in an adverse ways and also view themselves and also helpless and also inadequate.

The psychologist martin Seligman said that learned helplessness could play a duty in the breakthrough of depression. Follow to this theory, world often provide up on make the efforts to adjust their situation because they feel that nothing they do will make a difference. This absence of manage leaves world feeling helpless and hopeless.

The development of these cognitive models the depression played vital role in the advance of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which has actually been shown to be efficient in the treatment of depression.

Biological and also Medical Explanations

Where larger conceptualizations that depression stressed the role of at an early stage experiences, much more recent approaches progressively stress the biopsychosocial version that looks in ~ the biological, psychological, and also social components that pat a role in depression.

During the 1970s, the clinical model of mental disorders emerged and also suggested that all psychological disorders space primarily led to by physiological factors. The medical model views mental health problems in the same way as various other physical illnesses, which method that such conditions can additionally be treated v medication.

Biological explanations because that depression emphasis on factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, hormones, and brain anatomy.This view played an important role in the development and boosted use that antidepressants in the therapy of depression.

The 19th and 20th Century therapies

During the late 19th and also early 20th centuries, therapies for major depression normally weren"t enough to aid patients.

Desperate for relief, many human being turned come lobotomies, which space surgeries to damage the brain"s prefrontal lobe. Though deemed to have a "calming" effect, lobotomies frequently caused personality changes, a loss of decision-making ability, negative judgment, and sometimes even death.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), i m sorry is an electrical shock applied to the scalp in order to induce a seizure, was also sometimes provided for patients through depression.

In the 1950s and also 60s, doctors divided depression into subtypes that "endogenous" and also "neurotic" or "reactive."Endogenous depression was thought to result from genes or some various other physical defect, when the neurotic or reactive type of depression was thought to be the result of part outside difficulties such together a death or loss of a job.

The 1950s were crucial decade in the therapy of depression many thanks to the reality that physicians noticed the a tuberculosis medication referred to as isoniazid seemed to be useful in dealing with depression in part people. where depression treatment had actually previously been focused only on psychotherapy, medicine therapies now started to be arisen and included to the mix.

In addition, new schools that thought, such as cognitive behavioral and family solution theory arised as options to psychodynamic theory in depression treatment.

One that the an initial drugs to emerge for the therapy of depression was well-known as Tofranil (imipramine), which to be then complied with by a number of other medications categorized together tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Such drugs detailed relief because that many civilization with depression yet were often accompanied by significant side impacts that included weight gain, tiredness, and the potential for overdose.

Other antidepressants later on emerged, consisting of Prozac (fluoxetine) in 1987, Zoloft (sertraline) in 1991, and Paxil (paroxetine) in 1992. This medications, known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), target serotonin level in the mind and usually have fewer side results than their predecessors.

Newer antidepressant drugs that have emerged in the past pair of years include patent antidepressants such together Wellbutrin (bupropion), Trintellix (vortioxetine), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).

Our expertise of Depression this particular day

The term major depressive disorder (MDD) was an initial introduced by clinicians in the unified States during the 1970s. The condition officially became component of the DSM-III in 1980. The existing edition that the diagnostic manual is the DSM-5 and also is among the primary tools supplied in the diagnosis that depressive disorders.

While the condition is much better understood now than it was in the past, researchers room still working to learn an ext about the reasons of depression. At the current time, doctors think that depression arises from a mix of multiple causes including biological, psychological, and also social factors.

Modern views of depression incorporate an knowledge of the plenty of symptoms the this condition and the regularly cyclical effect that the symptoms deserve to have. Because that example, depression can cause disturbances in sleep, appetite, and activity levels; in turn, negative sleep, diet, and exercise have the right to exacerbate symptoms of depression.

In addition to considering the psychological components that add to depression, medical professionals are also aware that certain medical conditions such together hypothyroidism may cause depressive symptoms. The diagnosis of depression has ruling the end other clinical conditions and other possible causes such as alcohol or substance use.

Thanks to the enhanced understanding of the reasons of depression, reliable treatments have emerged. Psychotherapy and medications the target molecules called neurotransmitters are generally the desired treatments, return electroconvulsive therapy might be used in certain instances, such as in treatment-resistant depression or severe situations where instant relief is required.

Other, newer, therapies, consisting of transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation, have additionally been developed in recent years in an attempt to assist those who have actually failed come respond come therapy and also medications.

See more: Why Did The Publication Of Uncle Tom’S Cabin Infuriate People In The South?

Unfortunately, the causes of depression space more complex than we yet understand, through no solitary treatment providing satisfactory outcomes for everyone. Because depression is such a complicated condition, mental health professionals often introduce a treatment technique that has medications, psychotherapies, and lifestyle modifications.