Teachinter-base.net: The role of social Darwinism in european Imperialism (Gr. 9-10) by Stephen SpearOctober 15, 2013

Charles Darwin - from the inter-base.net Digital Collections, identifier #1220211Between the loss of Rome and the begin of the Enlightenment, the worry of faith was generally employed by europeans to justification territorial growth at the expense of international peoples. The Crusades against Islam, early efforts come unify Germany, and also the colonization of the brand-new World provide ready instances of instances in which insurance claims of spiritual mission were offered to covering the basic political and economic motivations of europe rulers.

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By the at an early stage 19th century, however, religion no longer provided appropriate moral cover because that Imperialism. Raised literacy in Europe, the widespread use of reason brought on by the Enlightenment, the well-known critiques of government sparked by the French Revolution, and spiritual pluralism made the so that couple of were willing to risk life and limb on a project of foreign occupation out of a feeling of religious zeal.

In stepped Charles Darwin. By the late 19th century his evolution theories detailed a new justification for exploitation. His publication On the beginning of varieties (1859) and also The descent of guy (1871) reinvented European thought. Not only did Darwin theorize the animals and plants advanced into different species through a procedure of herbal selection, he asserted that humans were animals themselves, topic to the same selection process that played the end in "nature". That did not take lengthy for other British philosophers, prefer Herbert Spencer and Karl Pearson, to effort to use Darwin"s theories to human being society. Why were some people rich and also others poor? Why were some dark-skinned and also others lighter? Why go the citizens of some people dwell in high buildings and also others in grass huts? might it be evolution at work? government officials across Europe did not wait for proof. By the 1880"s "Social Darwinism" to be the new justification for royal conquest about the world.

In bespeak to administer 9th and also 10th grade students an opportunity to explore this subject further, we have assembled a arsenal of major and an additional source readings to be analyzed and discussed as part of common core-aligned Social research studies units on one of two people the "New Imperialism" of the 19th century or the climb of Fascism in the 20th century.

In particular, this grouping of texts asks:

What precisely did social Darwinists believe?Were this theories based in actual science?How did this theories manifest themselves in British policy in south Africa?What function did castle play in the formation of Nazi doctrine in the 1920"s?

"According to Darwin we space descended indigenous monkeys" part of a series, "Common Fallacies"- native the George Arents cigarette Card collection (inter-base.net Digital Collections), ID# 1190450

Primary source Texts

Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler: This primary source is a detailed summary of the Nazi/Fascist principles of Adolf Hitler in 1923. Students will be able to see the Hitler"s chapter on race and nation are obtained from previously social-Darwinist theories.

Cambridge execution of the Poems that Rudyard Kipling: The city "White Man"s Burden" is a well-known example of one variation of social Darwinist belief.

An Essay on the rule of populace by thomas Malthus: This primary resource is a seminal tract by an knowledge era economist and social thinker. The theories described here laid the groundwork because that Social Darwinist theories later came later.

National Life native the Standpoint of science by karl Pearson: This primary resource is a lecture by a 19th century theorist applying the ethics of evolution biology come the struggle between nations for imperial supremacy. His comments come in the wake of Britain"s defeat in the Boer War.

The critical Will and Testament of Cecil man Rhodes: v Elucidatory notes to i m sorry are added Some Chapters explicate the politics and spiritual Ideas that the Testator through Cecil J. Rhodes and W.T. Stead: This is a combination of major and an additional sources. It consists of the critical will and testament the the diamond magnate who governed Britain"s south African swarm during the Boer War and left his fortune come the development of the Rhodes Scholarships. It also includes essays through a personal friend describing the subject"s society Darwinist views and also his motives for developing the scholarships.

Primary resource Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Ota Benga: September 1906, native The new York TimesArticles indigenous The brand-new York time - September 1906: In September that 1906 a man from main Africa called Ota Benga was showed in the monkey home of the Bronx zoo as part of an exhibition on evolution. The exhibit and the public"s reaction to be covered broadly by the new York time in a collection of fascinating daily articles that showed up from September second through September 22nd of the year. They have the right to be located at the new York windy Library with the brand-new York times online.

The Rhodes Colossus Striding indigenous Cape town to Cairo Punch, December 10, 1892"The Rhodes Colossus" in Punch vol. 103 December 10, 1892. The well-known 19th century british news magazine Punch presented a now classic satiric cartoon explicate of southern African colonial leader Cecil Rhodes and his expansionist goals. The complete title the this image, "The Rhodes Colossus Striding from Capetown come Cairo" describes the brand-new imperialist movement to insurance claim territories transparent the afri continent. The original article and image can be located in the Microform department of the new York windy Library (Punch is likewise viewable online through task Gutenberg). This caricature is however one of many drawn of Rhodes - and also other imperialists - in ~ the time. Extr caricatures native Punch have the right to be likewise viewed in the inter-base.net Digital Collection and through project Gutenberg. The use of cartoons come discuss/reflect imperialism was very prevalent in ~ the time, and also the Rhodes Colossus was widely reprinted.

Secondary source Texts:

Social Darwinism in American believed by Richard J. Hofstadter: The most popular secondary source rigid on social Darwinism by the historian who coined the phrase 

Ota Benga the Pygmy in the Zoo through Harvey Blume and also Phillip Verner Bradford: consists of primary and an additional source accounts of the 1906 exhibition of an African male in the monkey home of the Bronx zoo. It to be not allowed for the general public to photo Benga, do the photos in this book particularly rare and also touching.

Common core State requirements for this Texts and Task Unit

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.1 Cite details textual evidence to support evaluation of major and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin the the information.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.2 identify the main ideas or info of a primary or second source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas construct over the food of the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.3 analyze in information a series of events explained in a text; identify whether previously events caused later ones or simply preceded them.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.4 recognize the an interpretation of words and also phrases as they are offered in a text, consisting of vocabulary describing political, social, or economic facets of history/social studies.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.5 Analyze how a text supplies structure come emphasize key points or breakthrough an explanation or analysis.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.6 compare the suggest of view of 2 or an ext authors for just how they treat the exact same or similar topics, including which details they include and also emphasize in their respective accounts.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.8 evaluate the degree to i m sorry the reasoning and evidence in a text assistance the author"s claims.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.9 Compare and contrast therapies of the exact same topic in several primary and secondary sources.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.10 through the finish of great 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the qualities 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Want to usage these texts in the Classroom?

The above documents and also texts space compiled in inter-base.net Classroom connections Texts & jobs Unit - for typical Core lesson Plans: The duty of society Darwinism in european Imperialism Gr. 9-10 (PDF). This Texts and also Task unit have the right to be used for lesson planning or to supplement and also enhance current lessons. This Texts and Task Unit includes information on text complexity, text dependent questions, and a recommended performance job for this unit set to usual Core State requirements for History/Social Studies.

The role of society Darwinism in europe Imperialism: messages & jobs Unit for common Core class planning (click to watch downloadable PDF)

Additional sources for additional Reading & Research:

Cecil Rhodes from a series, "Builders the the brother Empire" - from the George Arents tobacco Card collection (inter-base.net Digital Collections), id #1200240

Feel totally free to include additional reading suggestions and also educational sources in the comments below.

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Stephen Spear teaches U.S. And European history at Eleanor Roosevelt High institution in Manhattan.