Part 1: Anti-Slavery Activists |Popularizing Anti-Slavery SentimentPart 2Black and also white abolitionists in the an initial half of the nineteenth century waged a biracial assault versus slavery. Theirefforts showed to be exceptionally effective. Abolitionists focused attention top top slavery and also made it daunting to ignore.They heightened the rift that had actually threatened to destroy the unified of the country even as at an early stage as the ConstitutionalConvention.

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Although part Quakers to be slaveholders, members of that religious group were among the earliest come protestthe African servant trade, the perpetual bondage of its captives, and the practice of separating enslaved familymembers by sale to different masters.As the nineteenth century progressed, numerous abolitionists united to kind numerous antislavery societies. Thesegroups sent petitions with hundreds of signatures come Congress, held abolition meetings and conferences,boycotted assets made with slave labor, printed mountains of literature, and also gave innumerable speeches fortheir cause. Separation, personal, instance abolitionists sometimes promoted violent means for bringing enslavement to an end.

Although black and white abolitionists regularly worked together, through the 1840s castle differed in ideology andmethod. While countless white abolitionists focused only ~ above slavery, black color Americans often tended to pair anti-slaveryactivities with needs for racial equality and also justice.

Anti-Slavery Activists

Christian Arguments versus Slavery

Benjamin Lay, a Quaker that saw slavery as a "notorious sin," addresses this 1737 volume come those that "pretend to lay claim to the pure and also holy Christian religion." Although part Quakers organized slaves, no religious group wasmore outspoken against slavery indigenous the ten century until slavery"s demise. Quaker petitions on behalf of the emancipation of african Americans flowed into early american legislatures and also later to the United claims Congress.

Benjamin Lay.All servant Keepers that store the innocent in Bondage . . . .Philadelphia: printed for the Author, 1737.Franklin Collection, rare Book and Special collection Division. (3-22)

Plea because that the Suppression of the servant Trade
Anthony Benezet.Observations top top the Inslaving, Importing and also Purchasing that Negroes.Germantown, Pennsylvania: Christopher Sower, 1760.American Imprints Collection, rarely Book and Special collection Division. (3-1)
In this plea because that the abolition that the slave trade, Anthony Benezet, aQuaker that French Huguenot descent, pointed out that if buyers did notdemand slaves, the supply would certainly end. "Without purchasers," that argued,"there would be no trade; and also consequently every purchaser together heencourages the trade, becomes partaker in the guilt the it." the contendedthat guilt exist on both political parties of the Atlantic. There room Africans, healleged, "who will sell their very own children, kindred, or neighbors." Benezet additionally used the biblical maxim, "Do depend others as you would certainly havethem perform unto you," come justify ending slavery. Insisting that emancipationalone would certainly not settle the difficulties of civilization of color, Benezet openedschools come prepare them for an ext productive lives.

The Conflict in between Christianity and also Slavery
Connecticut theologian Jonathan Edwards, born 1745, echoes Benezet"s useof the gold Rule as well as the organic rights debates of theRevolutionary era to justification the abolition the slavery. In this printedversion that his 1791 sermon come a inter-base.netal anti-slavery group, he note theprogress toward abolition in the North and predicts that with vigilantefforts enslavement would be extinguished in the following fifty years.

Jonathan Edwards, D.D.The Injustice and Impolicy the the servant Trade and of the slavery of afri . . . A Sermon.New Haven, Connecticut: Thomas and Samuel Green, 1791.Rare Book and also Special collections Division. (3-2)

Sojourner Truth
Sojourner Truth.Portrait.Carte de visite, 1864.Gladstone Collection, Prints and also Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZC4-6166 (3-11a)
Abolitionist and women"s legal rights advocate Sojourner fact was enslavedin brand-new York until she to be an adult. Born Isabella Baumfree approximately the turnof the nineteenth century, her very first language was Dutch. Owned by a seriesof masters, she to be freed in 1827 by the new York gradual Abolition Actand worked as a domestic. In 1843 she thought that she was referred to as by Godto travel roughly the nation--sojourn--and preach the truth of his word.Thus, she believed God gave her the name, Sojourner Truth. Among the waysthat she sustained her work-related was marketing these phone call cards.

Sojourner Truth.Carte de visite (seated), 1864.Gladstone Collection, Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZC4-6165 (3-11b)

Woman come Woman
The black Woman"s very nice one to her White Sisters.: Richard Barrett, <1850>.Broadside.Printed Ephemera Collection, rarely Book and Special collection Division. (3-12)
Ye wives and also ye mothers, your influenceextend--Ye sisters, ye daughters, the helpless defend--The strong ties are severed because that one crime alone,Possessing a colour much less fair than your own.Abolitionists taken the power of pictorial representations in drawingsupport for the reason of emancipation. Together white and black females becamemore active in the 1830s as lecturers, petitioners, and also meetingorganizers, sports of this female supplicant motif, appealing forinterracial sisterhood, showed up in newspapers, broadsides, and handicraftgoods marketed at fund-raising fairs.

Harriet Tubman--the Moses of she People
The quote below, echoing Patrick Henry, is indigenous this biography of underground rail conductor Harriet Tubman:Harriet was currently left alone, . . . She turnedher challenge toward the north, and fixing hereyes on the guiding star, and committing her means unto the Lord, she started again uponher long, lonely journey. She thought that there to be one or two points she had actually a best to, liberty or death.

After make her very own escape, Tubman went back to the southern nineteen times to bring over three hundred fugitives come safety, consisting of her very own aged parents.

In a handwritten keep in mind on the title web page of this book, Susan B. Anthony, that was an abolitionist and also a suffragist, referred to Tubman as a "most wonderful woman."

Sarah H. Bradford.Harriet, the Moses of she People.New York: J. J. Small & Co., 1901.Susan B. Anthony Collection, rarely Book and also Special collection Division. (3-21)

Increasing birds of Anti-slavery Organizations
declaration of the Anti-Slavery Convention.Philadelphia, December 4, 1833.Broadside.Rare Book and Special collection Division. (3-3)
In 1833, sixty abolitionist leader from ten states met in Philadelphia tocreate a national organization come bring around immediate emancipation ofall slaves. The American Anti-slavery society elected officers and also adopteda constitution and also declaration. Drafted by william Lloyd Garrison, thedeclaration pledged that is members to occupational for emancipation throughnon-violent action of "moral suasion," or "the fall of prejudice bythe strength of love." The society encouraged public lectures, publications,civil disobedience, and also the boycott of cotton and other slave-manufacturedproducts.

William Lloyd Garrison--Abolitionist Strategies
William L. Garrison."Sonnet to Liberty."Manuscript, December 14, 1840.Manuscript Division. (3-19a)
White abolitionist william Lloyd Garrison, born in 1805, had actually a particular fondness for poetry, i m sorry he thought to it is in "naturally and instinctively ~ above the side of liberty." He offered verse as a vehiclefor improving anti-slavery sentiment. Garrison collected his occupational in Sonnets and also OtherPoems (1843).

During the 1840s, abolitionist societies used song to stir up passionate at their meetings. To make songs simpler to learn, new words were collection to acquainted tunes. This tune by william Lloyd Garrison has actually six stanzas collection to the track of "Auld Lang Syne."

William L. Garrison."Song of the Abolitionist."November 10, 1841.Manuscript Division. (3-19b)

Popularizing Anti-Slavery Sentiment

Slave Stealer Branded
Massachusetts sea captain Jonathan Walker, born in 1790, to be apprehendedoff the shore of Florida because that attempting to lug slaves that were membersof his church denomination to freedom in the Bahamas in 1844. That wasjailed for much more than a year and branded with the letters "S.S." for slavestealer. The abolitionist poet john Greenleaf Whittier immortalizedWalker"s deed in this regularly reprinted verse: "Then lift that manly righthand, bolder ploughman of the wave! that branded palm candlestick prophesy,"Salvation to the Slave!""

John G. Whittier."The Branded Hand."Philadelphia, ca. 1845.Leaflet.Rare Book and Special collections Division. (3-15)

Abolitionist Songsters
George W. Clark.

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The Liberty Minstrel.New York: Leavitt & Alden , 1844.Music Division. (3-17)
George W. Clark"s, The Liberty Minstrel, is an exception among songstersin having actually music and also words. "Minstrel" in the title has actually its earliermeaning that "wandering singer." Clark, a white musician, wrote several of themusic himself; most of it, however, is composed of famous melodies towhich anti-slavery words have actually been written. The book is open up to a pagecontaining text to the song of "Near the Lake," which showed up earlierin this exhibition (section 1, article 22) together "Long Time Ago." keep in mind that thereis one anti-slavery poem on the right-hand page. Like plenty of songsters, TheLiberty Minstrel contains an occasional poem.

Abolitionist Songsters
Music was among the most powerful weapons the the abolitionists. In 1848,William Wells Brown, abolitionist and former slave, published TheAnti-Slavery Harp, "a repertoire of songs for anti-slaverymeetings," which contains songs and occasional poems. The Anti-SlaveryHarp is in the layout of a "songster"--giving the text andindicating the melody to i beg your pardon they room to it is in sung, but with no music. Thebook is open to the pages containing text to the song of the"Marseillaise," the French nationwide anthem, which to 19th-centuryAmericans symbolized the determination to bring about freedom, by pressure ifnecessary.

The Anti-Slavery Harp: A arsenal of Songs because that Anti-slavery Meetings.Compiled by wilhelm Wells Brown.Boston: Bela Marsh, 1848.Music Division. (3-16)

Suffer the Children
The Child"s Anti-Slavery Book: containing a few Words around American servant Children. . . .New York: Carlton and also Porter, 1859.Rare Book and also Special collection Division. (3-13)
This abolitionist tract, dispersed by the Sunday school Union, usesactual life stories about slave youngsters separated from your parents ormistreated by your masters to wake up the sympathy of totally free children. Vividillustrations help to reinforce the article that black youngsters shouldhave the same civil liberties as white children, and that holding people asproperty is "a sin versus God."

Abolition, Antislavery Movements, and also the increase of the Sectional Controversy: part 1
| part 2
Exhibit Sections: Slavery |Free Blacks |Abolition |Civil battle |Reconstruction Booker T. Washington Era |WWI-Post war |The Depression-WWII |Civil rights Era |
African American Odyssey Introduction |Overview |Object List