Nelumbo lutea(Willd.) Pers.: American lotus, yellow lotus, water chinquapin. Nelumbonaceae (lotus family).

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Native perennial. Dense colonies can be found in tho water come 6 ft (1.8 m) deep. Leaf and flower stalks arise straight from spongy rhizomes rooted in the substrate. Milky sap is uncovered throughout the emergent components of the plant and contains alkaloids similar to the drug-generating compounds usual in other species of lotus. The circular leaves float level on the water once young and later emerge to 3.3 ft (1 m), hosted up by stout leaf stalks attached come the middle of the underside the the blade. The large, waxy, plate-like leaves, 12 - 28 in (30 - 70 cm) wide, have actually no notch or indentation; the undersides have prominent ribs. Leaves held above the water surface space shallowly depressed at the center. The exceptionally showy yellow flowers arise from a huge egg-shaped bud. The flower is many-petaled, fragrant, 4 - 10 in (10 - 25 cm) wide, and carried up to 3.3 ft (1 m) above the water. A large fleshy funnel-shaped receptacle hold the nutlike fruit within pits ~ above its surface; that hardens and also turns brown as it dries, and also the oval fruit (nuts) become loosened within it. This is a really competitive species, may be to mitigate wildlife habitat diversity and also to hinder water flow and also access.

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Frog"s Bit

Limnobium spongia(Bosc.) Steud.: Frog"s bit. Hydrocharitaceae (frog"s bit family).

Native perennial. The tree is consisted of of a rosette of leaves that normally floats freely; larger plants have the right to root in mud to form dense mats. Root lined with hairs emerge at the basic of the rosette; daughter plants are produced on slim stolons. In unrooted pre-flowering plants, the rosette the young heart-shaped pipeline lies flat on the water surface. Leaf knives are 0.8 - 2 in (2 - 5 cm) long, v slender, versatile leaf stalks. A distinct inflated area of purplish spongy cells on the underside of the leaf blade add to buoyancy; networks of cross veins can be seen between the key veins. In ~ maturity and flowering, sheet stalks space spongy and also thicker (but no bulbous), approximately 6 in (15 cm) long, v two ridges down their length. The rounded oval leaves room held above the water come 1 ft (30 cm). While these older leaves are thicker and less heart-shaped, cross veination remains. The white flowers are clusters the thread-like petals, held on quick stalks in ~ the base of the plant; as the spherical, green-striped berry mature this stalks curve downwards.

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Giant Salvinia

Salvinia molestaMitchell: giant salvinia, kariba-weed, water spangles. Salviniaceae (water fern family).

Exotic perennial. This tree is a small, oval-leaved fern the floats on the surface of the water; despite its tiny size that can produce extreme water-use difficulties by reproducing rapidly and also creating dense mats come 3 ft (90 cm) thick. Individual, uncrowded, plants consist of two floating leaves and one underwater leaf the looks favor a feathery root. The paired floating leaves space small, 0.5 - 1 in (1.25 - 2.5 cm), oval, v a shallow notch at the base and a distinct incised midvein follow me which the leaf may fold inwards as plants become an ext crowded. The dense hairs that cover the upper surface of the leaves separation into several divisions at their ends and also then fuse back together, forming a little sphere of filaments at the tip of every hair; these deserve to be generally be checked out without magnification. As colonies expand and also become denser, plants create leaves overfilled alternately along a quick hidden stem. Small, round, brown, seed-like sporocarps might be produced from underwater parts. Salvinia is a major long-term weed problem in numerous parts the the world, now being faced in the U.S.

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Small Duckweed

Lemna minorL.: small duckweed, duckmeat. Lemnaceae (duckweed family).

Native. Individual plants consist of one to numerous very tiny (0.1 in; 2.5 cm) smooth oval leaves that lie practically flat ~ above the water surface and also float freely. The leaf has actually a slightly elevated midvein ~ above its surface. Roots and flower components are present but an overwhelming to see. Plant swarms can cover large areas of calm water in ponds and lakes, and may fixed up versus shorelines. They can create a nuisance come water flow and aesthetics.

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Spatterdock, Cow Lily

Nuphar advena(Ait.) Ait.f.: Spatterdock, yellow water lily, cow lily. Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family).

Native perennial. The totality plant is stout and also robust, a denizen of slow-moving shallow water and also areas of wet muck. Thick rhizomes thrive in the substrate, raising to 4 in (10 cm) in diameter; castle are frequently rough and marked with crescent-shaped leaf scars. Leaves can be submersed, floating level on the water, or held over the surface. The big leaf knives have an elongated heart-shape, yet are much less than double as lengthy as wide, 6 - 14 in (15 - 35 cm) long and 5 - 10 in (12.5 - 25 cm) wide. Leaves have long rounded lobes in ~ the base; the margins space smooth to wavy. The wide midrib is level to concave; side veins, parallel to each other, arise all follow me its length. The cylindrical spongy sheet stalk grows to 3 ft (90 cm) long; that attaches come the leaf blade in ~ the deep basal indentation or notch. Spherical-looking yellow flowers room borne over water ~ above stout stems up to 6 ft (1.8 m) long. The cupped petals surround a level yellow disk the becomes the height of a ridged, environment-friendly or yellow, pot-shaped fruit. Leaves, flowers, and also fruit differ from the related Nymphaea waterlilies.

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Water Hyacinth

Eichhornia crassipes

Exotic perennial. Creates extensive, dense, floating carpet of durable plants interconnected by spongy stolons. Plants have the right to reach as much as 3.3 ft (1 m) in height but are usually uncovered at 9 - 12 in (22.5 - 30 cm) tall. The many roots through their large stout root hairs are conveniently seen by pulling a plant the end of the water; these roots perform not anchor in the substrate. The sheet blade is short, leathery, extensively oval to circular, and also parallel-veined; it is hosted upright on a spongy leaf stem through a swollen to bulbous midsection that offers the tree buoyancy. Showy clusters of orchid-like lavender flowers room held over the water ~ above stout stalks; the flower has a yellow period in the top petal. Stem runners or stolons arise from tree at the water surface and generate daughter plants that multiply in turn. Fast vegetative reproduction and its impenetrably thick biomass do this types a significant noxious weed. The destroys native aquatic habitat and also interferes with all water uses. Back plants might be supplied as livestock forage or compost, and have detailed fiber product in the tropics, water hyacinth has actually nuisance status almost everywhere it has been introduced. As soon as comparing this plant v Limnobium spongia, note the showy violet flower, swollen sheet stalks, and absence of spongy cells on the underside that the sheet in water hyacinth.

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Water Lettuce

Pistia stratiotesL.: Water lettuce, water bonnets. Araceae (arum family).

Perennial, probably exotic. This floating, unattached plant consists of a huge open rosette, 18 in (45 cm) or an ext in width, comprised of coarse leaves and also numerous feather roots; the produces horizontal stolons that offer rise come daughter plants. The light- to yellow-green leaves space stalkless, and wider at the dull to slightly rounded top than at the base. Leaves space covered v short, dense, velvety hairs; parallel veins operation down the leaf in shallow grooves, giving the leaf a striped or rippled look. Inconspicuous flowers are borne centrally in a leaf-like structure. This plant deserve to increase swiftly in numbers and biomass, ending up being weedy over large areas; the causes major problems v water flow and water usage in lakes, rivers, and also canals.

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Watermeal

Wolffia columbianaKarst: Watermeal. Lemnaceae (duckweed family).

Native perennial. This light-green floating, rootless, plant is smaller than the duckweeds (Lemna spp.); it can cover areas of still water and also may it is in mistaken because that algae. The pipeline are extensively oval, v a flattened, unridged, surface. They space 0.05 in (1.5 mm) wide/long; 25 - 50 leaves have the right to fit ~ above a autumn of water. Plants feeling gritty or mealy when rubbed between the fingers. The leaves room uniformly green, unlike various other Wolffia species, whose pipeline may appear to have actually lighter and also darker areas or scattered white dots. Plants multiply by the development of brand-new leaves "budding" from ends of existing leaves. Regularly found amongst duckweeds; periodically in pure stands.

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Water Shield

Brasenia schreberiGmel.: Water shield, disagreement bonnet. Cabombaceae (water-shield family).

Native perennial. This tree can thrive in water approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) deep; it produces floating pipeline that deserve to overlap and also may totally cover surface areas. Lengthy leaf stalks emerge alternately indigenous a brief underwater stem or rise rhizome rooted in the substrate. Leaf knives are smooth, really broadly oval, as much as 4.75 in (12 cm) long; they perform not have any kind of notch or indentation. The sheet stalk attaches to the facility of underside of the blade. The underwater components of the plant, including the underside the the leaf and the sheet stalk, room reddish-purple and slimy, covered with a special mucilaginous coating. Conspicuous flowers, every a cluster of reddish-purple flower parts 0.75 in (2 cm) long, are organized singly over the water top top stout stalks.

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White/Fragrant Waterlily

Nymphaea odorataAit.: White or fragrant waterlily, pond-lily. Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family).

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Native perennial. Cylindrical rhizomes in the substrate create leaf and flower stalks in patience to slowly flowing water. The floating leaves are round to oval in shape, 6 - 12 in (15 - 30 cm) wide, v a triangular notch cut out almost to the center. The result basal lobes look more right-angled 보다 rounded. The sheet stalk join the blade in ~ the apex of the notch and multiple veins pan out indigenous this point. The underside that the leaf is generally reddish-purple. The showy, an extremely fragrant, multi-petaled flowers, 3 - 6 in (7.5 - 15 cm) across, rise on the surface; lock close in ~ night and also in low light. This waterlily different from spatterdock in the shape of the leaf, specifically the lobes, and in veination pattern, in addition to flower appearance. It have the right to cover big surface locations but stands are rarely thick enough to cause problems.