The second Party System

The 2nd Party System, consisting greatly of the Democrats and Whigs, added to rising levels the voter investment and partisanship.

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Learning Objectives

Summarize the origins, development, and vital characteristics that the second Party System


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe 2nd Party System occurred in 1828, with enhancing levels the voter interest and partisan identification leading into the presidential election.The 2nd Party mechanism is the first and only party device in which the two major parties stayed on about equal footing in every region.The system reflected and shaped the political, social, economic, and social currents that the Jacksonian Era until succeeded by the third Party system in 1854.Key TermsJacksonian Democracy: The political movement toward greater democracy for the usual man typified through American politician, Andrew Jackson, and also his supporters.Second Party System: A term supplied by historians and also political researchers to surname the political structure existing in the United says from around 1828 come 1854.Whig Party: A political group of the joined States during the era that Jacksonian democracy; taken into consideration integral come the 2nd Party System and also operating native the early 1830s come the mid-1850s, that was created in opposition to the plans of chairman Andrew Jackson.

Introduction

A transforming point in American political background occurred in 1828,when Andrew Jackson was chosen over the incumbent john Quincy Adams. While democratic practices had remained in ascendance due to the fact that 1800, the year additionally saw the further unfolding the a autonomous spirit in the united States. Pendant of Jackson dubbed themselves democracy or the Democracy, giving birth to the democratic Party and also thus inaugurating the second Party System. The second Party device existed in the United claims from around 1828 to 1854.

The American political device underwent fundamental change ~ 1820 under the rubric the Jacksonian democracy. If Jackson himself did not initiate the changes, he came to symbolize numerous of the transforms that take it place. For the first time, politics assumed a main role in voters’ lives. Prior to then, deference come upper-class elites and also general indifference regularly had identified local politics throughout the country. The suffrage laws were not completely at fault; rather, couple of men were interested in politics before 1828, and also fewer quiet voted or ended up being engaged due to the fact that politics did not seem important.

Changes followed the psychological shock the the scare of 1819 and also the 1828 choice of Andrew Jackson, who had actually a charismatic personality and also controversial policies. The 1828 election year was defined by climbing levels the voter interest as demonstrated by choice Day turnout, rallies, increasingly partisan newspapers, and a higher degree of voter commitment to your party. By 1840, projects were increasingly characterized by appeals to the typical man, v elections generating higher voter participation than they previously had. The democratization of American national politics was fine underway.

Major football player of the second Party System

The significant parties during this time contained the autonomous Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and also the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the national Republicans and also other opponents of Jackson. Martin valve Buren, john C. Calhoun, James K. Polk, Lewis Cass, and Stephen Douglas are amongst the finest known autonomous figures of this period. Influential Whig politicians included Daniel Webster, wilhelm H. Seward, and Thurlow Weed.

The Whig Party operated from the early on 1830s to the mid-1850s and also was created in opposition to the plans of chairman Andrew Jackson and also his democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the dominance of Congress end the presidency and also favored a regime of modernization and economic protectionism.

Minor parties consisted of the Anti-Masonic Party, i m sorry was crucial innovator from 1827 to 1834 and flourished in only those says with a weak 2nd party; the abolitionist Liberty Party the the 1840s; and also the antislavery cost-free Soil Party, energetic in the 1848 and 1852 elections. The second Party mechanism reflected and shaped the political, social, economic, and cultural currents the the Jacksonian Era until flourished by the 3rd Party mechanism in 1854.

Patterns

According to historian Richard P. McCormick, who is is famous for his scholarship top top the 2nd Party System, the frame was developed over a 15-year period that varied by state, and it was developed by leader trying to success the presidency through contenders structure their own nationwide coalitions. Regional effects strongly affected its developments, with the Adams forces strongest in new England, for example, and also the Jacksonians strongest in the Southwest.

This period significant the first time two-party national politics were extended to the South and also West, both the which had previously to be one-party regions. The second Party mechanism was likewise the first, and also remains the only, party mechanism in which the two significant parties stayed on about equal footing in every region. The very same two parties appeared in every state and contested both electoral votes and also state offices. Due to the fact that of this local balance, the second Party system was breakable to region-specific worries such as slavery.


The choice of 1828 and also the personality Issue

The choice of 1828 between John Quincy Adams and also Andrew Jackson observed a big number of character attacks and increased partisanship.


Learning Objectives

Summarize the situations leading as much as the choice of 1828 and the function character play in the election


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe election of 1828 to be a rematch between the incumbent president, john Quincy Adams, and also the runner-up in the 1824 election, Andrew Jackson.The election of 1828 was an important turning suggest in American politics; part historians and also political scientists argue the it presented the prototype for contemporary American politics and also the two-party device that we recognize today.The choice is likewise notable because that the an individual attacks that occurred between the opposing candidates, who had a long and also controversial political history together, dating ago to the hotly challenged election of 1824.Jackson winner an overwhelming victory over Adams, recording 56 percent that the famous vote and 68 percent of the electoral vote and also bringing the democratic Party right into power.Key TermsSecond Party System: A term provided by historians and also political scientists to describe the political system existing in the United claims from around 1828 come 1854.corrupt bargain: A term introduce to three historic incidents in American history in which political commitment was determined by conference or presidential action that countless viewed come be corrupt from various standpoints.

Introduction: The choice of 1828

The U.S. Presidential choice of 1828 featured a rematch in between John Quincy Adams, the incumbent president, and Andrew Jackson, the runner-up in the 1824 election. Through no other significant candidates, Jackson and also his chief ally, Martin van Buren, consolidated their bases in the southern and new York and easily beat Adams. The autonomous Party acquired its toughness from the existing pendant of Jackson and also their coalition v the supporters of Crawford (the Old republic ) and also Vice president Calhoun.

The election significant the rise of Jacksonian democracy ~ above the national stage and also the shift from the an initial Party System, of i beg your pardon Jeffersonian democracy was characteristic, come the 2nd Party System. Historians dispute the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the start of modern-day American politics and also the formation of the two-party system.

Nominations

The nomination of the democratic Party to be Andrew Jackson, previous senator from Tennessee. Jackson accepted the incumbent angry president, man C. Calhoun, as his running mate. Jackson’s supporters called themselves “Democrats,” hence marking the development of Jefferson’s Democratic- Republican Party right into the modern Democratic Party.

The national Republican Party nomination was john Quincy Adams (of Massachusetts), the incumbent chairman of the unified States. Adams embraced Secretary the the Treasury Richard sirloin of Pennsylvania together his evil presidential running mate. Adams supporters referred to as themselves “National Republicans,” and were antecedents the the Whig Party the the 1830s and, later, the Republican Party.

General Election

Campaign

The 1828 project differed substantially from previously presidential contests due to the fact that of the party company that advocated Andrew Jackson. Jackson and also his pendant reminded voter of the “corrupt bargain” that 1824. Lock framed it together the occupational of a tiny group of political elites, who, acting in a self-serving manner and ignoring the will of the majority, chose who would lead the nation. From Nashville, Tennessee, the Jackson project organized supporters around the country through editorials in partisan newspapers and also other publications. Pro-Jackson papers heralded the “hero of brand-new Orleans” if denouncing Adams. Though he did not wage one election project filled through public appearances, Jackson did offer one significant campaign speech in brand-new Orleans ~ above January 8, the anniversary the the loss of the brother in 1815. He also engaged in ring of conversation with politicians who came to his home, the Hermitage, in Nashville.

At the local level, Jackson’s supporters functioned to bring in as many brand-new voters together possible. Rallies, parades, and also other rituals further broadcast the blog post that Jackson represented the common man, that stood in contrast to the corrupt upstream backing Adams and also Clay. Democratic organizations dubbed “Hickory Clubs,” a tribute to Jackson’s nickname, “Old Hickory,” likewise worked tirelessly come ensure his election.

The project was marked by an exceptional amount that mudslinging. Jackson was struck for his marriage, his court martial and execution that deserters, his massacres the American Indian villages, and also his habit of dueling. It to be charged that Adams, when serving together minister to Russia, had actually surrendered an American servant girl come the appetites that the czar. Adams additionally was accused of using public accumulation to to buy gambling tools for the presidential residence; however, more investigation failed to substantiate this claims.

Results

The selection of electors began on October 31, 1828, v elections in Ohio and also Pennsylvania, and ended ~ above November 13 with elections in north Carolina. The Electoral university met ~ above December 3.

Adams winner the brand-new England states, new Jersey, and Delaware. In addition, Adams choose up Maryland. Jackson won whatever else, however, catching 56 percent the the renowned vote and 68 percent that the electoral vote and resulting in an overwhelming victory over Adams. As in 1800, as soon as Jefferson had won end the Federalist incumbent, man Adams, the presidency passed come a new political party, the Democrats. The choice was the climax of several decades of expanding democracy in the united States and the finish of the older national politics of deference.

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Electoral college votes in the choice of 1828: This map illustrates the Electoral college votes because that Jackson and Adams for each state. Jackson winner the bulk by a landslide, through Adams only winning the brand-new England states, brand-new Jersey, Delaware, and also Maryland.