At about 500 BC, the Latin language was only talked in the City of Rome itself and also the bordering countryside. Today 700 million people spread across every continent of the civilization speak a language that is obtained from Latin. Just how did this language team spread therefore far? The prize lies in the military occupations of the City of Rome in the an initial Millennium BC. The roman inn Empire’s conquest of the Mediterranean and Western Europe, and the stories of Roman kings such together Julius Caesar and Octavian are well known. Yet what is perhaps much more impressive is the story of exactly how the early Roman Republic, confined to a tiny area of main Italy, and also surrounded by plenty of larger, aggressive tribes, to be able to dominate the Italian Peninsula. This domination was achieved through a mix of army conquests, colonization, and strategic alliances. Eventually as Rome’s military power grew, those cities that “allied” with Rome became dependent upon her. The map above charts the progression of Rome’s ascendency in the Italian Peninsula, the colour represent different time durations where Rome’s authority to be felt, either straight or v alliances. In the north, Rome come into conflict with the Etruscans, that had at once dominated the area about Rome. Come the East, the Romans were affiliated in three wars through the Samnites. Rome"s conquest of mainland Italy culminated in the Pyrrhic War. By the start of the third Century BC, the Greeks, that had began colonizing southern Italy in the 8 hours Century BC, started to thrive wary the the farming influence the Rome. The Greeks invite King Pyrrhus the Epirus to help them in their dispute with Rome. King Pyhrrus to be an esteemed general and cousin of Alexander the Great, he had the ability to defeat the Romans in a number of battles, however at together a expense in manpower and also resources the he was quoted as saying: "If we room victorious in one much more battle v the Romans, us shall be completely ruined." (source)

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King Pyrrhus was taken aback by the resilience the Rome, it appeared that they had actually an endless supply that soldier, described by Plutarch
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"..as from a fractional continually flowing out of the city".(source)Eventually King Pyrrhus seek a compromise through Rome, however they refused any type of peace negotiations whilst he continued to be on Italian soil.


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King Pyrrhus"s final leave from Italy marked the end of any type of real resistance to Roman preeminence from the Greek cities of Italy. In modern-day English, the term "Pyrrhic Victory" has come to mean a win that come at a devastating price to the victor.


Recommended Reading:

The beginnings of Rome: Italy from the Bronze period to the Punic Wars

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The climb of the Roman realm (Penguin Classics)
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