Electronegativity

The capacity of an atom in a molecule to entice shared electron is referred to as electronegativity. Once two atom combine, the difference in between their electronegativities is one indication that the type of bond that will form. If the difference in between the electronegativities of the two atoms is small, neither atom deserve to take the mutual electrons completely away native the other atom and the bond will certainly be covalent. If the difference between the electronegativities is large, the an ext electronegative atom will certainly take the bonding electrons completely away indigenous the various other atom (electron transport will occur) and the bond will certainly be ionic. This is why metals (low electronegativities) bonded v nonmetals (high electronegativities) generally produce ionic compounds.

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A bond might be so polar the an electron actually transfers native one atom come another, creating a true ionic bond. Exactly how do us judge the degree of polarity? Scientists have actually devised a scale referred to as electronegativity, a range for judging how much atoms of any kind of element entice electrons. Electronegativity is a unitless number; the higher the number, the more an atom attractive electrons. A usual scale for electronegativity is shown in figure \(\PageIndex1\).

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api/deki/files/78265/CK12_Screenshot_9-13-3.png?revision=1&size=bestfit&width=320&height=311" />Figure \(\PageIndex2\) A nonpolar covalent shortcut is one in which the circulation of electron density in between the 2 atoms is equal.

The two chlorine atoms share the pair of electrons in the single covalent bond equally, and also the electron density surrounding the \(\ceCl_2\) molecule is symmetrical. Likewise note the molecules in i m sorry the electronegativity difference is very little (

Polar Covalent Bonds

A shortcut in i m sorry the electronegativity difference between the atoms is in between 0.5 and 2.0 is referred to as a polar covalent bond. A polar covalent bond is a covalent shortcut in i m sorry the atoms have actually an unequal attraction because that electrons and also so the share is unequal. In a polar covalent bond, periodically simply dubbed a polar bond, the distribution of electrons approximately the molecule is no longer symmetrical.

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Figure \(\PageIndex3\) In the polar covalent shortcut of \(\ceHF\), the electron thickness is unevenly distributed. There is a greater density (red) near the fluorine atom, and also a lower density (blue) close to the hydrogen atom.

An easy means to illustrate the uneven electron circulation in a polar covalent shortcut is to use the Greek letter delta \(\left( \delta \right)\).

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Figure \(\PageIndex4\) use of \(\delta\) to suggest partial charge.

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The atom through the higher electronegativity repurchase a partial an adverse charge, while the atom with the lesser electronegativity repurchase a partial optimistic charge. The delta prize is used to indicate that the quantity of fee is less than one. A crossed arrowhead can also be used to show the direction of greater electron density.

the ability of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond is its