Which of the following assumptions is embodied in the AFN equation?a. Accounts payable and accruals are tied directly to sales.b. Common stock and long-term debt are tied directly to sales.c. Fixed assets, but not current assets, are tied directly to sales.d. Last year"s total assets were not optimal for last year"s sales.e. None of the firm"s ratios will change.

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F. Marston, Inc. has developed a forecasting model to estimate its AFN for the upcoming year. All else being equal, which of the following factors is most likely to lead to an increase of the additional funds needed (AFN)?a. A switch to a just-in-time inventory system and outsourcing production.b. The company reduces its dividend payout ratio.c. The company switches its materials purchases to a supplier that sells on terms of 1/5, net 90, from a supplier whose terms are 3/15, net 35.d. The company discovers that it has excess capacity in its fixed assets.e. A sharp increase in its forecasted sales.
The term "additional funds needed (AFN)" is generally defined as follows:a. Funds that a firm must raise externally from non-spontaneous sources, i.e., by borrowing or by selling new stock to support operations.b. The amount of assets required per dollar of sales.c. The amount of internally generated cash in a given year minus the amount of needed to acquire the new assets needed to support growth.d. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each balance sheet account is held constant.e. Funds that are obtained automatically from routine business transactions.
The capital intensity ratio is generally defined as follows:a. The percentage of liabilities that increase spontaneously as a percentage of sales.b. The ratio of sales to current assets.c. The ratio of current assets to sales.d. The amount of assets required per dollar of sales, or A0*/S0.e. Sales divided by total assets, i.e., the total assets turnover ratio.
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps taken in the financial planning process?a. Monitor operations after implementing the plan to spot any deviations and then take corrective actions.b. Determine the amount of capital that will be needed to support the plan.c. Develop a set of forecasted financial statements under alternative versions of the operating plan in order to analyze the effects of different operating procedures onprojected profits and financial ratios.d. Consult with key competitors about the optimal set of prices to charge, i.e., the prices that will maximize profits for our firm and its competitors.e. Forecast the funds that will be generated internally. If internal funds are insufficient to cover the required new investment, then identify sources from which the required external capital can be raised
Spontaneous funds are generally defined as follows:a. A forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each item is held constant.b. Funds that a firm must raise externally through short-term or long-term borrowing and/or by selling new common or preferred stock.c. Funds that arise out of normal business operations from its suppliers, employees, and the government, and they include immediate increases in accounts payable,accrued wages, and accrued taxes.d. The amount of cash raised in a given year minus the amount of cash needed to finance the additional capital expenditures and working capital needed to supportthe firm"s growth.e. Assets required per dollar of sales.
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?a. The first, and perhaps the most critical, step in forecasting financial requirements is to forecast future sales.b. Forecasted financial statements, as discussed in the text, are used primarily as a part of the managerial compensation program, where management"s historicalperformance is evaluated.c. The capital intensity ratio gives us an idea of the physical condition of the firm"s fixed assets.d. The AFN equation produces more accurate forecasts than the forecasted financial statement method, especially if fixed assets are lumpy, economies of scale exist,or if excess capacity exists.e. Perhaps the most important step when developing forecasted financial statements is to determine the breakdown of common equity between commonstock and retained earnings.
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?a. Suppose a firm is operating its fixed assets at below 100% of capacity, but it has no excess current assets. Based on the AFN equation, its AFN will be larger than if it had been operating with excess capacity in both fixed and current assets.b. If a firm retains all of its earnings, then it cannot require any additional funds to support sales growth.c. Additional funds needed (AFN) are typically raised using a combination of notes payable, long-term debt, and common stock. Such funds are non-spontaneous inthe sense that they require explicit financing decisions to obtain them.d. If a firm has a positive free cash flow, then it must have either a zero or a negative AFN.e. Since accounts payable and accrued liabilities must eventually be paid off, as these accounts increase, AFN as calculated by the AFN equation must also increase.
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?a. The AFN equation for forecasting funds requirements requires only a forecast of the firm"s balance sheet. Although a forecasted income statement may help clarifythe results, income statement data are not essential because funds needed relate only to the balance sheet.b. Dividends are paid with cash taken from the accumulated retained earnings account, hence dividend policy does not affect the AFN forecast.c. A negative AFN indicates that retained earnings and spontaneous liabilities are far more than sufficient to finance the additional assets needed.d. If the ratios of assets to sales and spontaneous liabilities to sales do not remain constant, then the AFN equation will provide more accurate forecasts than the forecasted financial statements method.e. Any forecast of financial requirements involves determining how much money the firm will need, and this need is determined by adding together increases inassets and spontaneous liabilities and then subtracting operating income.

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Which of the following statements is CORRECT?a. If a firm"s assets are growing at a positive rate, but its retained earnings are not increasing, then it would be impossible for the firm"s AFN to be negative.b. If a firm increases its dividend payout ratio in anticipation of higher earnings, but sales and earnings actually decrease, then the firm"s actual AFN must, mathematically, exceed the previously calculated AFN.c. Higher sales usually require higher asset levels, and this leads to what we call AFN. However, the AFN will be zero if the firm chooses to retain all of its profits, i.e., to have a zero dividend payout ratio.d. Dividend policy does not affect the requirement for external funds based on the AFN equation.e. The sustainable growth rate is the maximum achievable growth rate without the firm having to raise external funds. In other words, it is the growth rate at which the firm"s AFN equals zero.
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