Marginal productivity Theory of Distribution: Definitions, Assumptions, Explanation!

The oldest and also most far-ranging theory of factor pricing is the marginal performance theory. The is likewise known as Micro theory of element Pricing.

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It was propounded by the German economist T.H. Von Thunen. But afterwards many financial experts like knife Mcnger, Walras, Wickstcad, Edgeworth and Clark etc. Contributed for the advancement of this theory.

According come this theory, remuneration the cache variable of production tends come be equal to the marginal productivity.

Marginal productivity is the enhancement that the usage of one extra unit the the aspect makes to the complete production. So lengthy as the marginal cost of a element is much less than the marginal productivity, the entrepreneur will certainly go top top employing an ext and much more units of the factors. The will avoid giving additional employment as shortly as the marginal efficiency of the aspect is same to the marginal price of the factors.


“The distribution of earnings of culture is managed by a organic law, if it operated without friction, would give to every agent of production the amount of wealth which that agent creates.” -J.B. Clark

“The marginal efficiency theory contends that in equilibrium each productive agent will certainly be bonus in accordance with its marginal productivity.” -Mark Blaug


“The marginal efficiency theory of income circulation states that in the lengthy run under perfect competition, components of production would tend to receive a real price of return which was exactly equal to their marginal productivity.” -Liebhafasky

Assumptions that the Theory:

The main assumptions of the theory are as under:

1. Perfect Competition:

The marginal performance theory rests top top the basic assumption of perfect competition. This is because it can not take into account uneven bargaining power in between the buyers and the sellers.

2. Homogeneous Factors:

This theory assumes that systems of a aspect of production are homogeneous. This suggests that different units of variable of production have the same efficiency. Thus, the performance of every workers giving the particular kind of work is the same.

3. Rational Behaviour:


The concept assumes the every producer desires to reap maximum profits. This is since the organizer is a rational person and also he so combine the different factors of production in such a way that marginal productivity from a unit the money is the very same in the case of every aspect of production.

4. Perfect Substitutability:

The concept is additionally based top top the assumption of perfect substitution not only in between the different units that the same element but additionally between the various units of various components of production.

5. Perfect Mobility:

The concept assumes the both labour and also capital room perfectly mobile in between industries and also localities. In the lack of this presumption the variable rewards can never have tendency to be equal as in between different areas or employments.

6. Interchangeability:

It means that all systems of a variable are equally efficient and also interchangeable. This is since different systems of a aspect of production are homogeneous, due to the fact that they space of the same efficiency, they deserve to be work inter-changeable, and also e.g., whether us employ the 4th man or the 5th man, his performance shall be the same.

7. Perfect Adaptability:

The theory takes for granted that various determinants of production are perfectly adaptable as in between different occupations.

8. Knowledge about Marginal Productivity:

Both producers and owners of factors of production have means of discovering the value of factor’s marginal product.

9. Complete Employment:

It is assumed the various factors of production are fully employed v the exception of those who seek a wage over the value of their marginal product.

10. Legislation of change Proportions:

The regulation of change proportions is applicable in the economy.

11. The lot of factors of Production need to be capable of gift Varied:

It is assumed that the quantity of factors of production can be differed i.e. Their units can either be increased or decreased. Climate the remuneration of a variable becomes same to its marginal productivity.

12. The law of Diminishing Marginal Returns:


It means that as units of a element of production are increased the marginal productivity goes on diminishing.

13. Long-Run Analysis:

Marginal performance theory of circulation seeks to explain determination of a factor’s remuneration only in the long period.

Explanation of the Theory:

The marginal performance theory claims that under perfect competition, price the each element of production will be same to that is marginal productivity. The price of the element is identified by the industry. The firm will employ that variety of a given element at i m sorry price is same to that marginal productivity. Thus, for industry, that is a concept of factor pricing while because that a firm it is a factor need theory.

Analysis the Marginal performance Theory indigenous the point of watch of an Industry:

Under the problems of perfect competition, price of each factor of manufacturing is figured out by the equality that demand and supply. As the theory assumes the there exists full employment in the economy, therefore, supply of the element is suspect to be constant. So, factor price is identified by its need which chin is figured out by the marginal productivity. Thus, under such conditions, it becomes important to throw light on the need curve or marginal productivity curve of one industry.


As the industry consists of a group of countless firms, accordingly, its demand curve deserve to be attracted with the need curves of all the that company in the industry. Moreover, marginal revenue efficiency of a variable constitutes its need curve. That is only as result of this factor that a firm’s demand or work depends ~ above its marginal revenue productivity. A firm will employ that number of labourers at which their marginal revenue efficiency is equal to the prevailing wage rate.


Fig. 2 mirrors that at wage rate OP1, the need for work is ON1 and marginal revenue performance curve is MRP1. If fairy rate falls to OP, that company will rise production by demanding an ext labour. In such a situation the price of the commodity will fall and also marginal revenue performance curve will also shift to MRP2.

At OP wages, the need for labour will boost to ON. DD1 is the firm’s need curve because that labour. The summation of need of all the this firm shows need curve of an industry. Since the variety of firms is not consistent under perfect competitive market, it is not possible to estimate the summation of demand curves of all firms. However, one thing is details that is the demand curve of industry additionally slopes bottom from left come right. The point where demand for and also supply of a variable are equal will determine the element price for the industry. This theory assumes the it is provided of a variable to be fixed.




Thus variable price is identified by the demand for variable i.e. Factor price will certainly be same to the marginal revenue productivity. It has been displayed by Fig. 3. In the Fig. 3, variety of labour has actually been handled OX axis whereas wages and also MRP have actually been handled OY axis. DD1 is the industry’s demand curve because that labour. This is additionally the Marginal Revenue performance curve.

Factor Price (OW) = Marginal Revenue efficiency MRP.

Thus under perfect competition, aspect price is figured out by the industry and also firm needs units of a variable at this price.

Analysis that Marginal productivity Theory native the allude of see of Firm:

Under perfect competition, number of firms is very large. No single firm deserve to influence the sector price that a element of production. Every for sure acts together a price taker and not a price maker. Therefore, it needs to accept the prevailing price. No employer would prefer to pay much more than what others room paying. In other words, a firm will certainly employ that variety of a factor at i beg your pardon its price is equal to the value of marginal productivity. Therefore, native the allude of view of a firm, the theory suggests how countless units of a factor it must demand.


It is due to this factor that it is likewise called theory of factor Demand. Other things continuing to be the same, as an ext and an ext labourers space employed by a firm, that marginal physical performance goes or- diminishing. As price under perfect competition remains constant, so once marginal physical productivity of work goes on diminishing, marginal revenue performance will additionally go top top diminishing. Therefore, in stimulate to gain the equilibrium position, a firm will employ labourers approximately a point where their particular marginal revenue productivity is same to their wage rate.


Table 2 indicates that wage price of labour is Rs. 55 every labourers. Price that the product developed by the labourer is Rs. 5 per unit. Now, when a firm employs one labourer, his marginal physical productivity is 20 units. By multiplying the MPP with price that the product we get marginal revenue productivity. Here, that is Rs. 100 for the very first labour. The marginal revenue efficiency of second labourer is Rs. 85 and of third labourer the is Rs. 70.

The marginal revenue performance of 4th labourer is Rs. 55 which is equal to wage rate. The firm will certainly earn maximum profits if the employs approximately the 4th labourer. If the for sure employs fifth labourer, it will have to suffer losses of Rs. 15. Therefore, to obtain maximum profits, a firm will employ a element upto a allude where MRP is equal to price.


In Fig. 4 number of labourers has actually been measured on OX-axis and wage rate on Y-axis. MRP is marginal revenue efficiency curve and also WW is the wage price prevailing in the market. Since, under perfect competition wage price will remain consistent that is why WW wage line is parallel to OX-axis.


MRP curve is sloping down-ward. It cut WW at point E which is the equilibrium wage rate of Rs. 55. At suggest E, firm will demand only four labourers. Thus, from the above, we have the right to conclude that a factor is demanded up to the limit where its marginal performance is equal to prevailing price.


Under perfect competition, in long duration in the equilibrium position, not only the marginal salaries of a firm are equal to marginal revenue productivity, also the median wages the the firm space equal to typical net revenue performance as has been presented in Fig. 5. The fig. 5 shows that at suggest ‘E’ marginal incomes of labour are same to marginal revenue productivity and also the certain employs OM variety of workers. At this point, also the typical net revenue performance is same to median wages. For this reason firm earns only normal profit. If wage heat shifts native NN come N climate the demand for labour rises from OM to OM1.

Determination of variable Pricing under Imperfect Competition:

Marginal productivity theory uses to the condition of perfect competition. But in actual life we challenge imperfect competition. Therefore, economic experts like Robinson, Chamberlin have actually analyzed element pricing under imperfect competition. There are miscellaneous firms under imperfect competition. However here us shall analyze only Monopsony. Under monopsony, over there is perfect competition in product market. In turn MRP is equal to VMP. There is imperfect compete in element market.


It suggests that over there is only one the person who lives of the factors. Therefore, monopsony describes a instance of industry where just a single firm gives employment come the factors. If the firm demands much more factors, factor price will certainly go up and also vice-versa. However, the determination of variable price under monopsony have the right to be described with the aid of Fig. 6.


In Fig. 6 number of labourers has actually been shown on X-axis and also wages ~ above Y-axis. MW is marginal fairy curve and ARP is the typical wage curve. MRP is the marginal revenue productivity curve and AW is the mean revenue productivity curve.

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In the fig. 6 a monopsony will certainly employ that variety of labourers in ~ which their marginal fairy is equal to MRP. In the fig. 6 firm is in equilibrium at point E. Here, firm will certainly employ ~ above labourers and also they will be paid incomes equal come NF. In this way, on labourers will get less incomes than your MRP i.e. EN. Monopsony firm will have actually EF benefit per labourer which arises because of exploitation the labourers. Full profit SFWW’ is because of exploitation of labour.

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