recognize and also name any kind of alkyl group that can be considered to have actually been formed by the removal of a terminal hydrogen atom from a straight-chain alkane containing ten or under carbon atoms. Define what is expected by a primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary carbon atom. Represent the various species of necessary compounds using the prize “R” come represent any type of alkyl group.

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Key Terms

Make specific that you have the right to define, and also use in context, the crucial terms below.

alkyl group methyl group isopropyl group sec-butyl group isobutyl group tert-butyl team primary carbon second carbon tertiary carbon quaternary carbon
Study Notes

The differences among primary, secondary, tertiary and also quaternary carbon atoms are defined in the adhering to discussion. A convenient method of memorizing this group sinter-base.nete is to remember that a major carbon atom is attached straight to just one other carbon atom, a second carbon atom is attached straight to 2 carbon atoms, and so on.

The IUPAC system requires first that we have names for straightforward unbranched chains and also second, the we have names for simple alkyl groups that might be attached to the chains. One alkyl team is developed by removed one hydrogen native the alkane chain. The remove of this hydrogen results in a stem change from -ane come -yl to suggest an alkyl group. The removal of a hydrogen from methane, CH4, create a methyl team -CH3. Likewise, the remove of a hydrogen from ethane, CH3CH3, create an ethyl group -CH2CH3. The nomenclature sample can proceed to provide a collection of straight-chain alkyl teams from right chain alkanes through a hydrogen eliminated from the end. Note, the letter R is supplied to point out a generic (unspecified) alkyl group.


Table \(\PageIndex2\): straight chain alkane and also alkyl team names



Alkyl Group

Name (Abbreviation)

CH4 Methane -CH3 Methyl (Me)
CH3CH3 Ethane -CH2CH3 Ethyl (Et)
CH3CH2CH3 Propane -CH2CH2CH3 Propyl (Pr)
CH3CH2CH2CH3 Butane -CH2CH2CH2CH3 Butyl (Bu)
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Pentane -CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Pentyl

Prior come the organized nomenclature developed for necessary inter-base.netistry, prefixes were provided to point out the connection suggest of straight-chain and also branched-chain alkyl groups. Back the contemporary nomenclature system, discussed in the next section, is desired these older terms room still frequently used, especially in solvents and also reagents. Thus, an knowledge of these prefixes is vital to knowledge organic inter-base.netistry. An alert that the total variety of carbons in the alkyl subsistent is still indicated with the prefix + yl. For methyl and also ethyl alkyl teams there is just one possible connection allude so connection prefixes are not necessary. Starting with a 3 carbon alkyl team (propyl) the opportunity of multiple link points necessitates connection prefixes. This prefixes are often abbreviated with a letter i beg your pardon is italicized.

Normal (n)

The prefix "n" is supplied to indicate a link at the end of a straight-chain alkane. This prefix is not generally used to just show alkyl subsistent as questioned above. Yet it is sometime provided to indicate the connection of a functional group onto a right alkane.


Iso (i)

Starting with propyl alkyl groups there is the possibility of a connection other 보다 the really end. The prefix "iso" indicates that the link ends with a (CH3)2CH- group.


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Tertiary (tert or t)

Starting with 4 carbon alkyl groups, there is one isomer which can have a connection endind through a (CH3)3C- group. This alkyl groups acquire the prefix "t."

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Classification of carbon atoms

Carbons have actually a unique terminology to explain how numerous other carbons they are attached to. This enables for straightforward description of branching in alkanes. Also, we will find that the number of carbons attached to a given atom will have subtle impacts on its inter-base.netistry.

primary carbons (1o) attached to one various other C atom. An additional carbons (2o) are attached come two various other C’s. Tertiary carbons (3o) are attached come three various other C’s. Quaternary carbons (4o) space attached to four C"s.

The figure listed below use the group "R" to stand for an alkyl team of unspecified length. R commonly used to stand for alkyl groups but an additionally represent a component of a molecule i beg your pardon is one of two people unspecified or not germane come the discussion.