Medically the evaluation by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph.D., R.N., CRNA — created by Tom Seymour ~ above September 15, 2017

It originates from the Greek native hupér, meaning over, and haîma, definition blood.

You are watching: The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by

In this article, we study what hyperemia is, in addition to its causes and also symptoms. We additionally take a look at the difference between energetic and passive hyperemia.


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Share ~ above PinterestHyperemia is an overfill of blood in blood vessels and may look at red and also warm, such as when a human blushes.
Hyperemia occurs as soon as excess blood build up within the vascular system, i beg your pardon is the system of blood ship in the body.

When excess blood occurs exterior the vascular system, due to a broken blood ship or injury, this is known as hemorrhage.

The buildup the blood may existing as a red, warm, painful, swollen area. These signs, along with loss that function, are considered the original five signs that inflammation characterized by the Greek thinker Celsus.


Hyperemia can be broken down right into two types: active and passive.

These types can then be further separated into regional hyperemia (meaning in a particular area) or general hyperemia (affecting a whole system in the body).

Hyperemia have the right to be acute or chronic, definition it can happen quickly and also for a quick time or might persist over a longer term.

Active hyperemia

Active hyperemia is a physiological solution to something happening in the body. The is one acute type of hyperemia.

For example, there is much more blood in the digestive mechanism after a meal, an ext blood in the muscles after exercise, and more blood in the face when a human blushes.

Increased blood flow and redness take place when there is a demand for oxygen and nutrients in a certain area.

The 2 different types of active hyperemia are:

Acute general energetic hyperemia: once there is raised blood circulation throughout the body.Acute local energetic hyperemia: when there is an increased amount the blood in a regional area such as the leg, stomach, or lung. This is the most common kind of hyperemia.

Passive hyperemia

Also known as congestion, passive hyperemia have the right to be either acute or chronic.

Chronic passive hyperemia generally occurs in the organ systems the the lung, liver, and also lower extremities.

It may be localized come one area. However, if the blood flow in the heart is being impeded, then it will influence the totality system.

This occurs as soon as there is a decreased outflow the end of the blood vessels.


The reasons of hyperemia vary depending on whether the is active or passive.

Causes of energetic hyperemia include:

exerciseinflammationmenopausal flushdiseases that make the heart beat rapidly

Causes the passive hyperemia include:

a blockage in a blood vessela kink in a veinthrombosis

Another reason of passive hyperemia is the inability of the love to pump blood efficiently, bring about a buildup the too lot blood in locations leading come the heart.

In right-sided heart failure, the blood backs up into the liver. In left-sided love failure, the blood backs up into the lungs.

Right-sided love failure

If the trouble is top top the right side that the heart, it can reason congestion in the liver, spleen, kidney, or leg.

This can lead to what is well-known as “nutmeg liver” due to the mottled pattern that shows up on the liver. The liver will likewise be enlarged, red or reddish-blue in appearance, and also surrounded by brownish-yellow fat liver cells.

Over time, this can reason cirrhosis, i beg your pardon is scarring resulted in by long-term liver damage and can at some point lead to liver failure and death.

Left-sided love failure

The lungs are much more likely come be influenced if there is a trouble with the left next of the heart. The lung will appear dark red and also there might be excess liquid in the lungs.

Heart failure in one side can at some point lead to fail in the contrary side together well.


Hyperemia can readjust the organization in the influenced area. World with active hyperemia may notification one or an ext of the adhering to symptoms:

bright red in colorwarmer 보다 usual to touchswelling

Passive hyperemia influence the organization differently and also has the following symptoms:

dark blue or red tingeswollencooler 보다 usual to touchin chronic cases, brown in color

Effects and also complications

The type of hyperemia a person has will recognize what kind of complications might occur.

For example, acute local active hyperemia might be a authorize of inflammation. Acute neighborhood passive hyperemia could be because of intestinal or uterus torsion.

Chronic neighborhood passive hyperemia might indicate the tumors or abscesses are arising in the body.

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Passive hyperemia, or congestion, is attached to love problems and also will influence different organs in the body depending on which part of the heart is affected.