1) exactly how do the Taylor Glacier bacteria develop their energy? A) photosynthesis B) heterotrophism C) chemoautotrophism D) thermophobism E) chemosynthesis

2) In ecosystems, why is the term cycling supplied to explain material transfer, vice versa, the term flow is used for power exchange? A) materials are repeatedly used, yet energy flows through and also out the ecosystems. B) Both material and energy space recycled and are then moved to other ecosystems as in a flow. C) products are cycled right into ecosystems from various other ecosystems, however energy constantly flows within the ecosystem. D) Both material and energy flow in a never-ending stream within an ecosystem. E) no one of the options is correct.

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3) which statement most accurately describes how matter and also energy are supplied in ecosystems? A) issue is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not. B) power is cycled through ecosystems; issue is not. C) power can be converted into matter; issue cannot it is in converted into energy. D) Matter can be converted right into energy; power cannot it is in converted right into matter. E) matter is provided in ecosystems; energy is not.

4) The regulation of preservation of matter states that issue cannot be created, yet issue is sometimes acquired or lost to an ecosystem. What is the reason for this seeming contradiction? A) Chemoautotrophic organisms can convert matter come energy. B) Matter have the right to be moved in/out of an ecosystem from/to an additional ecosystem. C) photosynthesis organisms transform solar energy to sugars. D) Detrivores convert matter come energy. E) Heterotrophs transform heat come energy.

5) Photosynthetic biology are unique to many ecosystems because they A) synthesize necessary compounds they acquire from disk heterotrophs. B) synthesize inorganic compounds from organic compounds. C) usage light power to synthesize essential compounds. D) use chemical energy to synthesize necessary compounds. E) transform light power into matter.

6) A cow\"s herbivorous diet shows that it is a(n) A) primary consumer. B) second consumer. C) decomposer. D) autotroph. E) producer.

7) come recycle nutrients, an ecosystem have to have, in ~ a minimum, A) producers. B) producers and decomposers. C) producers, major consumers, and decomposers. D) producers, main consumers, second consumers, and decomposers. E) producers, primary consumers, second consumers, optimal carnivores, and also decomposers.

8) which of the following terms encompasses all of the others? A) heterotrophs B) herbivores C) carnivores D) primary consumers E) second consumers

9) countless homeowners mow your lawns during the summer and also collect the clippings, which room then hauled come the local landfill. Which of the following actions would most advantage the suburban ecosystem? A) enable sheep to graze the lawn and then collect the sheep\"s feces come be yielded to the landfill. B) collection the lawn clippings and also burn them. C) collection the lawn clippings and include them to a compost pile, don\"t collection the clippings and let lock decompose right into the lawn, or use composted clippings to the lawn. D) collect the clippings and also wash them into the nearest storm sewage system that feeds right into the local lake. E) destruction up the lawn and also cover the yard with asphalt.

10) i beg your pardon of the complying with is an instance of an ecosystem? A) every one of the brook trout in a 500 hectare² river drainage system. B) The plants, animals, and decomposers that inhabit one alpine meadow. C) A pond and all of the plant and also animal varieties that live in it. D) The complex interactions of the assorted plant and animal types on a savanna during a drought. E) interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropic rain forest.

11) If the sun were come suddenly avoid providing power to Earth, many ecosystems would certainly vanish. Which of the following ecosystems would most likely survive the longest after ~ this theoretical disaster? A) dry rain forest B) tundra C) benthic s D) meadow E) desert

12) i m sorry of the adhering to is true of detrivores? A) they recycle chemical elements directly earlier to major consumers. B) lock synthesize organic molecules the are offered by major producers. C) They transform organic products from all trophic level to not natural compounds usable by primary producers. D) castle secrete enzymes that transform the organic molecules of detritus right into CO₂ and H₂O. E) Some species are autotrophic, if others room heterotrophic.

13) The significant role of detrivores in ecosystems is come A) provide a nutritional source for heterotrophs. B) recycle chemical nutrient to a kind capable that being supplied by autotrophs. C) stop the buildup of the organic stays of organisms, feces, and so on. D) return energy lost to the ecosystem by various other organisms.

14) approximately 1% of the solar radiation the strikes a tree is converted right into the chemistry bond energy of sugars. Why is this amount therefore low? A) roughly 99% of the solar radiation is converted to warm energy. B) only 1% that the wavelength of visible irradiate are took in by photosynthetic pigments. C) most solar energy strikes water and land surfaces. D) roughly 99% the the solar radiation is reflected. E) just the green wavelengths are soaked up by plants because that photosynthesis.

15) What percentage of solar radiation highlight a tree is converted right into chemical energy? A) 1% B) 10% C) 25% D) 50% E) 100%

16) subtraction of i beg your pardon of the adhering to will transform gross major productivity into net major productivity? A) the energy consisted of in the standing chop B) the energy used by heterotrophs in respiration C) the power used through autotrophs in respiration D) the power fixed through photosynthesis E) all solar energy

17) which of these ecosystems accounts for the biggest amount that Earth\"s net major productivity? A) tundra B) savanna C) salt marsh D) open ocean E) dry rain forest

18) which of these ecosystems has the greatest net main productivity per square meter? A) savanna B) open ocean C) boreal woodland D) dry rain woodland E) pleasant forest

19) i beg your pardon data is most helpful to measure major productivity in a terrestrial ecosystem? A) temperature readings B) potential evapotranspiration C) soot of solar radiation D) annual precipitation E) amount of carbon fixed

20) i m sorry of the following is a true statement regarding mineral nutrient in soils and their implicitly for major productivity? A) Globally, phosphorous accessibility is most limiting to major productivity. B) adding a nonlimiting nutrient will certainly stimulate major productivity. C) Adding much more of a limiting nutrient will boost primary productivity, indefinitely. D) Phosphorous is sometimes unavailable to producers because of leaching. E) Alkaline soils are more productive 보다 acidic soils.

21) The complete biomass of photosynthesis autotrophs existing in an ecosystem is known as A) gross major productivity. B) stand crop. C) net major productivity. D) second productivity. E) trophic efficiency.

22) how is it that the open ocean produces the highest net main productivity of Earth\"s ecosystems, yet net major productivity every square meter is relatively low? A) oceans contain greater concentrations the nutrients compared to various other ecosystems. B) seas receive a lesser amount of solar power per unit area. C) Oceans have the largest area of all the ecosystems ~ above Earth. D) ocean ecosystems have actually less varieties diversity. E) Oceanic producer are typically much smaller sized than oceanic consumers.

23) Why is net major production (NPP) a more useful measurement to an ecosystem ecologist 보다 gross primary production (GPP)? A) NPP deserve to be express in energy/unit that area/unit that time. B) NPP have the right to be express in regards to carbon addressed by photosynthesis for whole ecosystem. C) NPP represents the save chemical power that is accessible to consumer in the ecosystem. D) NPP is the exact same as the was standing crop. E) NPP reflects the rate at which the standing crop is used by consumers.

24) exactly how is network ecosystem production (NEP) typically estimated in ecosystems? A) the proportion of producer to consumer B) the amount of heat energy released by the ecosystem C) the network flux the CO₂ or O₂ in or the end of one ecosystem D) the rate of decomposition through detrivores E) the yearly total of just arrived solar radiation every unit of area

25) Aquatic major productivity is most minimal by i m sorry of the following? A) light and also nutrient availability B) predation by major consumers C) increased pressure with depth D) contamination E) temperature

26) Aquatic ecosystems are least likely to be minimal by i m sorry of the complying with nutrients? A) nitrogen B) carbon C) phosphorus D) stole E) zinc

27) What is the primary limiting variable for aquatic productivity? A) press B) lack of nutrients C) light availability D) herbivores E) competition

28) i m sorry of the adhering to ecosystems would certainly likely have actually a bigger net major productivity/hectare and why? A) open up ocean due to the fact that of the full biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs B) grassland since of the little standing chop biomass that results from intake by herbivores and also rapid decomposition C) tropical rain forest since of the massive standing crop biomass and varieties diversity D) cavern due to the absence of photosynthesis autotrophs E) tundra due to the fact that of the extremely rapid period of growth throughout the summer season

29) just how is it that satellites have the right to detect distinctions in main productivity top top Earth? A) Photosynthetic organisms absorb an ext visible irradiate in the 350—750 wavelengths. B) Satellite instruments can detect reflectance trends of the photosynthetic biology of different ecosystems. C) sensitive satellite instruments deserve to measure the amount of NADPH created in the summative irradiate reactions of different ecosystems. D) Satellites detect differences by compare the wavelength of irradiate captured and reflected through photoautotrophs come the lot of light reaching different ecosystems. E) Satellites detect distinctions by measure the lot of water vapor emitted through transpiring producers.

30) i m sorry of the following lists of organisms is ranked in correct order from lowest to greatest percent in manufacturing efficiency? A) mammals, fish, insects B) insects, fish, mammals C) fish, insects, mammals D) insects, mammals, fish E) mammals, insects, fish

31) A 3-hectare lake in the American Midwest suddenly has actually succumbed to an algal bloom. What is the likely reason of eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, such as this one? A) boosted solar radiation B) introduction of non-native tertiary customer fish C) nutrient runoff D) accidental advent of a prolific society of birds E) iron dust blowing into the lake

32) The lot of chemical energy in consumers\" food that is convert to your own new biomass throughout a provided time period is well-known as which of the following? A) biomass B) standing chop C) biomagnification D) main production E) second production

33) What is second production? A) energy converted by an additional consumers from main consumers B) solar energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis C) food that is converted to brand-new biomass by consumer D) energy that is not used by consumers for growth and reproductionE) development that bring away place throughout the 2nd year that life in consumers

34) exactly how does inefficient transport of energy amongst trophic levels result in the commonly high endangerment condition of many top-level predators? A) Top-level predators space destined come have small populations that room sparsely distributed. B) Predators have actually relatively big population sizes. C) Predators are more disease-prone than pets at lower trophic levels. D) Predators have brief life spans and also short reproductive periods. E) Top-level predators are an ext likely to be stricken v parasites.

35) Trophic performance is A) the proportion of net second production to assimilation of primary production. B) the portion of manufacturing transferred from one trophic level come the next. C) a measure up of how nutrients room cycled indigenous one trophic level to the next. D) usually higher than manufacturing efficiencies. E) about 90% in most ecosystems.

36) Owls eat rats, mice, shrews, and tiny birds. Assume that, over a period of time, an owl spend 5,000 J of animal material. The owl loser 2,300 J in feces and also owl pellets and uses 2,500 J for cellular respiration. What is the primary efficiency of this owl? A) 0.02% B) 1% C) 4% D) 10% E) 40%

37) Why does a vegetarian leave a smaller eco-friendly footprint than an omnivore? A) Fewer animals are slaughtered for human being consumption. B) there is an excess of tree biomass in all terrestrial ecosystems. C) Vegetarians have to ingest much less chemical energy than omnivores. D) Vegetarians require much less protein than perform omnivores. E) eating meat is an inefficient means of acquiring photosynthetic productivity.

38) For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass, and also energy are basically the samethey have actually a vast base and also a small top. The primary reason because that this sample is the A) an additional consumers and also top carnivores call for less power than producers. B) at each step, energy is lost from the device as a result of maintaining the organisms alive. C) as matter passes with ecosystems, few of it is shed to the environment. D) biomagnification of toxicity materials borders the secondary consumers and also top carnivores. E) height carnivores and an additional consumers have a an ext general diet than main producers.

39) which of the adhering to is mainly responsible for limiting the number of trophic level in many ecosystems? A) numerous primary and also higher-order consumers space opportunistic feeders. B) Decomposers contend with higher-order consumers for nutrients and also energy. C) Nutrient cycles involve both abiotic and also biotic materials of ecosystems. D) Nutrient cycling rates tend to be restricted by decomposition. E) energy transfer in between tropic level is in nearly all instances less 보다 20% efficient.

40) which trophic level is most delicate to extinction? A) producer level B) primary consumer level C) an additional consumer level D) tertiary customer level E) decomposer level

41) second consumers that can eat only primary consumers get what percent that the power fixed by major producers in a typical field ecosystem? A) 0.1% B) 1% C) 10% D) 20% E) 80%

42) i beg your pardon statement ideal describes what ultimately happens come the chemical energy that is no converted to new biomass in the procedure of power transfer in between trophic level in an ecosystem? A) that is undigested and winds up in the feces and also is no passed top top to greater trophic levels. B) it is offered by biology to keep their life processes through the reactions of moving respiration. C) Heat produced by to move respiration is used by heterotrophs to thermoregulate. D) it is got rid of as feces or is dissipated into an are as heat in accordance through the second law that thermodynamics. E) the is recycled by decomposers to a type that is when again usable by main producers.

43) think about the food chain grass → grasshopper → mouse → line → hawk. Exactly how much of the chemical power fixed through photosynthesis of the grass (100%) is easily accessible to the hawk? A) 0.01% B) 0.1% C) 1% D) 10% E) 60%

44) If the flow of power in an arctic ecosystem goes v a straightforward food chain, perhaps entailing humans, beginning from phytoplankton to zooplankton come fish come seals come polar bears, then which that the following can be true? A) Polar bears can provide an ext food for humans than seals can. B) The complete biomass the the fish is lower than the of the seals. C) Seal meat probably includes the highest possible concentrations that fat-soluble toxins. D) Seal populaces are bigger than fish populations. E) The fish deserve to potentially provide more food for people than the seal meat can.

45) Nitrogen is easily accessible to plants only in the form of A) N2 in the atmosphere. B) nitrite ions in the soil. C) uric mountain from pet excretions. D) amino acids from decomposing plant and also animal proteins. E) nitrate ions in the soil.

46) i beg your pardon of the adhering to locations is the reservoir for nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle? A) setting B) sedimentary radical C) fossilized plant and animal continues to be (coal, oil, and also natural gas) D) plant and animal biomass E) soil

47) i m sorry of the adhering to locations is the reservoir because that carbon for the carbon cycle? A) atmosphere B) sediments and also sedimentary rocks C) fossilized plant and also animal stays (coal, oil, and natural gas) D) plant and also animal biomass E) all of the above

48) In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria that replenish the atmosphere with N2 are A) Rhizobium bacteria. B) nitrifying bacteria. C) denitrifying bacteria. D) methanogenic protozoans. E) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

49) how does phosphorus normally go into ecosystems? A) moving respiration B) photosynthesis C) absent weathering D) vulcanism E) atmospheric phosphorous gas

50) which of the complying with is an example of a regional biogeochemical cycle? A) O₂ released by oak tree in a forest B) CO₂ took in by phytoplankton in the open ocean C) overfill NO₃- converted to N₂ by denitrifying soil bacteria D) phosphorous being absorbed from the soil by a corn tree E) organic carbon continues to be of a leaf being convert to CO₂ by a fungus

51) which of the adhering to statements is correct about biogeochemical cycling? A) The phosphorus cycle entails the recycling of atmospheric phosphorus. B) The phosphorus cycle entails the weathering the rocks. C) The carbon bike is a localized cycle the primarily entails the burning of fossil fuels. D) The carbon cycle has maintained a continuous atmospheric concentration of CO₂ for the previous million years. E) The nitrogen cycle entails movement the diatomic nitrogen between the biotic and also abiotic contents of the ecosystem.

52) which of the adhering to properly links the nutrient come its reservoir? A) nitrogenionic nitrogen in the floor B) wateratmospheric water vapor C) carbondissolved CO₂ in aquatic ecosystems D) phosphoroussedimentary rocks E) all of the choices are correct.

53) In regards to nutrient cycling, why does hardwood harvesting in a temperate forest reason less ecological devastation than lumber harvesting in dry rain forests? A) trees are normally less numerous in temperate forests, so under nutrients will certainly be removed from the temperate woodland ecosystem during a harvest. B) Temperate woodland tree species require fewer nutrients to make it through than your tropical equivalent species, so a harvest clears fewer nutrients from the warm ecosystem. C) The warmer temperature in the tropics affect rain forest varieties to assimilate nutrients more slowly, therefore tropical nutrient absorption is much slower than in pleasant forests. D) over there are far fewer decomposers in dry rain forests, so transforming organic matter into usable nutrient is a slower process than in temperate forest ecosystems. E) common harvests eliminate up to 75% of the nutrient in the woody trunks that tropical rain forest trees, leaving nutrient-impoverished soils behind.

54) Why carry out logged tropical rain forest soils generally have nutrient-poor soils? A) Tropical bedrock contains little phosphorous. B) Logging outcomes in floor temperatures that space lethal come nitrogen-fixing bacteria. C) many of the nutrient in the ecosystem are removed in the harvest timber. D) The cation exchange capacity of the soil is reversed as a result of logging. E) nutrient evaporate quickly into the atmosphere in the post-logged forest.

55) What is the an initial step in ecosystem restoration? A) to restore the physical structure B) to reclaim native species that have been extirpated as result of disturbance C) to eliminate competitive invasive species D) to recognize the limiting components of the producer E) to eliminate toxic pollutants

56) What is the goal of reconstruction ecology? A) to change a damaged ecosystem with a more suitable ecosystem for the area B) to speed up the reconstruction of a degraded ecosystem C) to completely restore a disturbed ecosystem to its previous undisturbed state D) to protect against further deterioration by protecting an area through park condition E) to regulate competition between species in human-altered ecosystems

57) i m sorry of the adhering to statements is true? A) one ecosystem\"s trophic framework determines the price at which power cycles within the system. B) in ~ any point in time, that is difficult for consumers to outnumber producer in an ecosystem. C) Chemoautotrophic prokaryotes close to deep-sea vents are primary producers. D) There has been a well-documented rise in atmospheric nitrogen over the previous several decades. E) The reservoir that ecosystem phosphorous is the atmosphere.

58) In a typical grassland community, i beg your pardon of the adhering to has the the smallest biomass? A) eagle B) line C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass

59) In a common grassland community, i m sorry of the complying with is the main consumer? A) eagle B) snake C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass

60) once levels of CO₂ are experimentally increased in a common grassland community, C₃ plants normally respond v a higher increase in efficiency than C₄ plants. This is due to the fact that A) C₃ plants are an ext efficient in their use of CO₂. B) C₃ plants room able to attain the very same amount of CO₂ by maintaining their stomata open for shorter periods that time. C) C₄ tree don\"t use CO₂ together their resource of carbon. D) C₃ plants are more minimal by CO₂ availability because they lack mechanisms to protect against transpirational water loss. E) C₃ plants have special adaptations because that CO₂ uptake, together as larger stomata.


Food internet for a details terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and also letters stand for species) 61) study this food web for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Which species is autotrophic? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E

Food internet for a details terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and letters stand for species) 62) study this food web for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Which species is most most likely a decomposer ~ above this food web? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E

Food net for a certain terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and also letters stand for species) 63) study this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Types C is toxic to predators. Which varieties is most most likely to advantage from gift a mimic of C? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E

Food net for a specific terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and also letters stand for species) 64) research this food net for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Which pair of species could it is in omnivores? A) A and also B B) A and also D C) B and also C D) C and also D E) C and E


Diagram that a food web (arrows represent energy flow and also letters represent species) 65) If the figure over represents a terrestrial food web, the merged biomass the C + D would more than likely be A) greater than the biomass of A. B) much less than the biomass the H. C) higher than the biomass that B. D) much less than the biomass the A + B. E) less than the biomass that E.

Diagram the a food web (arrows represent power flow and letters represent species) 66) If the figure above represents a naval food web, the smallest organism can be A) A. B) F. C) C. D) I. E) E.

67) top top the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i m sorry number represents nitrite (NO₂)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

68) on the chart of the nitrogen cycle, which number to represent ammonia (NH₄+)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

69) top top the chart of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number represents nitrogen-fixing bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7

70) ~ above the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number to represent nitrifying bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7

71) expect you room studying the nitrogen cycle in a pond ecosystem over the course of a month. While you room collecting data, a flock of 100 Canada geese lands and spends the night throughout a autumn migration. What can you execute to remove error in your study as a an outcome of this event? A) uncover out just how much nitrogen is consumed in plant product by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period, main point this number by 100, and add that amount come the full nitrogen in the ecosystem. B) uncover out just how much nitrogen is removed by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period, multiply this number through 100, and also subtract the amount native the total nitrogen in the ecosystem. C) uncover out how much nitrogen is consumed and eliminated by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period and multiply this number by 100; go into this +/- value into the nitrogen budget of the ecosystem. D) perform nothing. The Canada geese visitation to the lake would have actually negligible affect on the nitrogen budget plan of the pond. E) put a net over the pond so the no an ext migrating flocks have the right to land ~ above the pond and alter the nitrogen balance the the pond.

72) As big as it is, the ocean is nutrient-limited. If you want to investigate this, one reasonable technique would be to A) monitor whale migrations in stimulate to identify where many nutrients room located. B) observe Antarctic ocean productivity native year to year to view if that changes. C) experimentally enrich some locations of the ocean and compare their productivity to the of untreated areas. D) compare nutrient concentrations between the photic zone and the benthic region in various marine locations. E) comparison nutrient absorb by autotrophs in marine locations that are different temperatures.

73) A porcupine eats 3,000 J of tree material. Of this, 2,100 J is indigestible and also is removed as feces, 800 J are provided in moving respiration, and 100 J are used for growth and also reproduction. What is the almost right production efficiency of this animal? A) 0.03% B) 3% C) 10% D) 27% E) 33%

74) which of the adhering to organisms is incorrectly paired v its trophic level? A) cyanobacteriumprimary producer B) grasshopperprimary customer C) zooplanktonprimary producer D) eagletertiary customer E) fungusdetritivore

75) i beg your pardon of this ecosystems has the shortest net main production every square meter? A) a salt swamp B) one open ocean C) a coral reef D) a meadow E) a dry rain forest

76) The technique that uses ecological ethics to returning degraded ecosystems come a more natural state is recognized as A) population viability analysis. B) see ecology. C) conservation ecology. D) restoration ecology. E) resource conservation.

77) Nitrifying bacteria take part in the nitrogen cycle mostly by A) convert nitrogen gas come ammonia.B) publication ammonium native organic compounds, hence returning it come the soil.C) converting ammonia come nitrogen gas, which returns to the atmosphere. D) convert ammonium to nitrate, which plants absorb. E) combine nitrogen into amino acids and organic compounds.

78) which of the complying with has the greatest effect on the rate of chemical cycling in an ecosystem? A) the ecosystem\"s price of major production B) the production performance of the ecosystem\"s consumers C) the price of decomposition in the ecosystem D) the trophic efficiency of the ecosystem E) the location of the nutrient reservoirs in the ecosystem

79) The ha Brook watershed deforestation experiment yielded every one of the complying with results except: A) many minerals to be recycled in ~ a woodland ecosystem. B) The flow of minerals the end of a herbal watershed was offset by minerals flow in. C) Deforestation boosted water runoff. D) The nitrate concentration in waters draining the deforested area became dangerously high. E) Calcium levels stayed high in the soil of deforested areas.

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80) i m sorry of the complying with would be considered an instance of bioremediation? A) including nitrogen-fixing microbe to a degraded ecosystem to boost nitrogen ease of access B) using a bulldozer to regrade a strip mine C) dredging a river bottom to eliminate contaminated sediments D) reconfiguring the channel the a flow E) including seeds of a chromium-accumulating plant to floor contaminated by chromium

81) If you used a fungicide to a cornfield, what would certainly you intend to take place to the rate of decomposition and net ecosystem production (NEP)? A) Both decomposition rate and NEP would decrease. B) Both decomposition rate and also NEP would certainly increase. C) Neither would certainly change. D) Decomposition rate would increase and NEP would certainly decrease. E) Decomposition price would decrease and also NEP would increase.