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During the first decade that the nineteenth century, the geographic image of western north America started to adjust dramatically. Based on the observations of Lewis and Clark, details gathered from indigenous people, and also Clark"s very own cartographic imagination, this image developed from an virtually empty inner with a hypothetical solitary mountain range serving together a western continent divide, to an elaborate one showing a tangle the mountains and rivers. A continent that had once seemed empty and basic was now ending up being full and complex.

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It would certainly take an additional fifty year after Lewis and Clark to finish the cartographic image of the West we recognize today. Other explorers and also map devices followed, every revealing brand-new geographic and also scientific details about specific parts that the western landscape. However this revealing procedure was not a straightforward one. Brand-new knowledge go not instantly replace old ideas; some old notions—especially around river passages across the West—persisted well into the century. In the years after Lewis and also Clark the agency of west explorers increased to incorporate fur traders, missionaries, and also government topographers, finishing in the 1850s with the Army"s Corps the Topographical designers surveying the southwestern and also northwestern boundaries of the unified States also the potential routes for a transcontinental railroad. By the time of the polite War, an ocean-to-ocean American realm with borders plainly defined to be a fact of continental life.


The Journeys of Zebulon Montgomery Pike

In mid-July 1806 Lewis and also Clark were on their method back native the Pacific. At the very same time young army Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike left St. Louis with twenty-three guys to reconnoiter the Spanish borderlands. Unequal the other expeditions commissioned by Jefferson, Pike walk not take trip by the command that the president. Instead, he take it his orders from general James Wilkinson, governor of the Louisiana Territory and sometime an enig agent because that the Spanish. Pike carried out two expeditions for Wilkinson. The an initial (August 1805–April 1806) took him increase the Mississippi River into present-day Minnesota. The second expedition began in July 1806 and also drew come a close in late June 1807. Together drafted through Wilkinson, Pike"s instructions take it the traveler into lands the were part of the Spanish empire. And also in February 1807, close to present-day Alamosa, Colorado, Spanish pressures took Pike and his men right into custody. Pike was a spy however just that he was spying for remains an open up question. Pike"s account that his southwestern adventures, published in 1810, drew extr attention to the region and its feasible future as component of an widening American empire.


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General James Wilkinson, then branch of upper Louisiana, determined Pike to command an exploratory exploration along the Mississippi flow north the St. Louis. Back instructed to chart the river and observe its natural resources and also places perfect for military and commercial establishments, Pike also attempted to find the river"s headwaters. Leaving St. Luigi in respectable 1805, the ascended the river as much as Leech Lake in Minnesota, lacking its resource by an ext than 50 miles. ~ above Pike"s return to St. Louis in April 1806, Anthony Nau compiled a large, four-sheet manuscript map the the upper Mississippi River, based upon Pike"s field notes and also sketch maps.


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Anthony Nau, compiler. “A map out of the Mississippi native the town of St. Louis come its source in top Red Cedar Lake. . . Taken indigenous the note of sublieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike . . . 1805 and also 1806.” St. Louis: ca. 1806. Web page 2. Manuscript map. Courtesy of nationwide Archives, Washington, D.C. (102)


In the summer of 1805, sublievenant Zebulon Pike expanded his assignment to incorporate a find for the source of the Mississippi River. ~ spending the winter in contemporary Minnesota, Pike and his party returned to St. Luigi in April 1806, simply months prior to his an ext momentous venture up the Arkansas River.Pike"s newspaper is open up to September 23,1805, as soon as Pike got to the Rock river in northwestern Illinois and encountered the Sauk tribe and their chief black Hawk.


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Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779–1813). “An Account that a voyage up Mississippi flow from St. Louis to its resource . . . August 9, 1805–April 30, 1806” . Page 2. Manuscript journal, September 23, 1805. Manuscript Division, Library of conference (99)


This small notebook, i m sorry was among the papers confiscated native Zebulon Pike throughout his bondage in Mexico in 1807 and also returned to the State department in 1910, contains sketch maps and field monitorings from 1805–1807. It includes data from his explorations along the top Mississippi and also into the Spanish borderlands. ~ above the pages displayed above, dated September 8 v September 25, 1805, Pike recorded distances and observations together his party traveled along the Mississippi River. The entries conclude when the exploration reached the falls of St. Anthony in contemporary Minneapolis.


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Zebulon Pike. . Field notebook, September 8-September 25, 1805. Courtesy of the nationwide Archives, Washington, D.C. (104)


Suspected that spying, Pike and also his party to be intercepted and detained by Spanish authorities in Colorado. In this letter to Secretary of State James Madison, chairman Jefferson urges him to deny that Pike had any duty as a spy and explain that he was under order to check out the watersheds of the Arkansas and Red Rivers. The president suggested that the Spanish forces who escorted him with Texas come Natchitoches, Louisiana, it is in reimbursed from the battle Department funds.


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Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) come James Madison (1751–1836), respectable 30, 1807. Manuscript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of congress (107)


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This little sketch map, with west inter-base.netated at the top, is supposedly the an initial American map depicting the Santa Fe Trail. Return the map is in Pike"s hand, the does no depict the path he traversed yet was more than likely prepared as a recommendation map showing a 1797 trek by three French traders, operating out that the St. Louis area, indigenous the time of the Platte and Missouri Rivers come Santa Fe (identified as St. Affee in ~ the peak of the page). When Pike to be detained in February of 1807, this map to be confiscated by Spanish authorities who suspected the it portrayed a armed forces route to their settlement.


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Zebulon Pike. , St. Louis: ca. 1806. Manuscript map. Courtesy of nationwide Archives, Washington, D.C. (103)


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In 1806, despite the risk of Spanish opposition, surveyor and astronomer cutting board Freeman and also naturalist Peter Custis, collection out to explore the Red River, the southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. Your objective was to inter-base.netate the river"s source, believed to it is in in the vicinity that the Spanish station of Santa Fe. After ~ traveling approximately 600 miles, the small party was faced by Spanish troops and also the mission was aborted. The expedition"s course is tape-recorded on this manuscript map. The area discover by Freeman, in contemporary Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, was likewise incorporated right into Zebulon Pike"s official report map published in 1810.


Nicholas King (1771–1812). “Map the the Red flow in Louisiana indigenous the Spanish Camp whereby the trying out party that the U.S. Was met through the Spanish troops to wherein it enters the Mississippi . . .” Washington, D.C.: 1806. Manuscript map. Courtesy the the national Archives, Washington, D.C. (100) “Map that the Red flow in Louisiana native the Spanish Camp where the exploring party that the U.S. Was met through the Spanish troops to whereby it enters the Mississippi . . .” Philadelphia.: 1806. Engrav"d by F. Shallus. Geography and Map Division, Library the Congress


After experimenting the region adjacent come the top that bears his name in Colorado, Pike traced the north fork of the Arkansas and also searched for the Red River"s source. Ill-prepared for harsh winter weather, Pike and also his men constructed a little stockade top top the upper Rio Grande. Here they were captured by the Spanish in February 1807 and also taken to Santa Fe and on come Chihuahua, Mexico. Pike was ultimately released, yet his notes and also documents were confiscated. His 1810 published Account to be largely created from memory. Although the text is poorly written and disorganized, it offered the public its first detailed knowledge of settlements and southwestern lands past the Spanish border.


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Maps of Long"s Explorations


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These companion maps, both consisted of in the published account that Long"s 1819–1820 clinical Expedition, delineate the expedition"s course from St. Louis increase the Missouri and also Platte Rivers to the Rocky Mountains. Lot of the details for the eastern fifty percent of the map (above left) was borrowed from commercial sources. The west half, based on Long"s own explorations and earlier surveys, corrected plenty of geographical errors made by vault expeditions. Boldly blazoned, however, ~ above the southern levels is Long"s faulty characterization, “Great American Desert.”











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The Prairie. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Carey, 1827. Rarely Book and also Special collection Division, Library of conference (114)

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Basin the the Columbia and Snake Rivers






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Albert Gallatin, Secretary that the Treasury under presidents Jefferson and Madison, also became an government on phibìc American Indian languages. From the time of his meeting v Alexander von Humboldt, when the German geographer checked out Jefferson in 1804, Gallatin occurred an interest in aboriginal languages and continued to collect information around tribal distributions transparent his career. In 1836 at age 75, that compiled this map depicting ten significant ethno-linguistic households to companion the publishing of his findings on the group of phibìc American Indian languages. The map likewise incorporates information gleaned native the explorations the the fur trapper Jedediah Smith.



Considered one of the an excellent rarities of western Americana, the stare of Zenas Leonard vividly chronicles his 1831–1833 travels with the Rocky Mountains, trapping beaver with one of several rival fur companies, and his exceptional adventures with Joseph R. Walker"s exploration to California. Leonard catches the walker party"s struggle to survive on the comb of the Sierra throughout the brutal winter of 1833 and also the thrill of recognize Yosemite Valley and a southerly pass v the Sierra Nevada. Leonard"s account was initially serialized in his hometown newspaper, the Clearfield autonomous Banner.


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American cases to Oregon Territory



Narrative that the Wilkes Expedition



Sutter"s Fort




Plants Collected









“Map of one Exploring exploration to the Rocky hills in the year 1842 and also to Oregon & north California in the year 1843-44 . . .” from man C. Frémont (1813–1890). Report of the Exploring exploration to the Rocky Mountains. . . . Washington: 1845. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division, Library of congress (126)



Heights that Mountains


Charles Preuss (1803–1854). Journal entry and sketch, “Hights <sic> the Mountains,” 1832. Manuscript Division, Library of conference (122)




Considered one of the most prominent accounts of the American far West, man C. Frémont"s Report that his expeditions was released in more than two-dozen execution in the an initial fifteen years. The popular of his Report is early in big part to the literary ability of his mam Jesse (1824–1918), the daughter that expansionist Senator cutting board Hart Benton. This check out of the separating ridge of the Sierras, February 14, 1844, attracted shortly prior to Frémont"s descent into the Sacramento Valley, documents the party"s daring winter cross guided by the mountaineer Kit Carson.






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Theodore Talbot (1825–1862). Newspaper entry, respectable 5, 1843. Manuscript Division, Library of congress (125B)


In 1856, capitalizing top top his popularity, john C. Frémont (1813–1890) ran as the newly formed Republican party"s first presidential candidate. In this image, intended to adorn a project banner or poster, Frémont is presented on a hill peak, planting the American flag. This scene to be intended as a reminder to the general public of Frémont"s well known exploring expeditions to the Rocky mountains in 1842 and also 1843. Frémont lost the election to James Buchanan (1791–1868) by a margin the 174 to 114 electoral votes.


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William H. Emory (1811–1887). Map No. 4, Boundary between the unified States and Mexico, Agreed top top by the share Commission under the contract of Guadalupe Hidalgo and December 30th, 1853. . Lithograph map. Geography and also Map Division, Library of congress (138)


The actual surveying the the southwestern border line and also the ready of the resulting reports and also maps were assigned to members the the army Corps the Topographical Engineers, generally under the direction of william H. Emory. The united States and Mexican Boundary survey was completed in 1855, but the released reports were no issued till 1859. The three-volumes had numerous landscape and also ethnographic illustrations, and also accounts the the geology, botany, and also zoology follow me the surveyed line.

See more: The Gangster We Are All Looking For Pdf, The Gangster We Are All Looking For


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th, 1846. . Photo-lithograph maps. Geography and Map Division, Library of congress (138D)

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Transcontinental rail Proposals







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G. K. Warren. Map of the are of the United says from the Mississippi come the Pacific Ocean, 1857 (or 8) . Engraved map . Geography and Map Division, Library of congress (143a,b)


In translate into his map, G.K.Warren closely evaluated all the obtainable data and also incorporated the many reliable information, particularly that based upon scientific instrumentation and careful analysis by past explorations, including those led by Lewis and Clark, Pike, Long, Wilkes, Frémont, and Emory. Warren detailed a thorough record of his methodology in a an extensive “Memoir,” in which the listed, because that example, the longitude that a selection of places (the accuracy that which had actually long to be problematic) and also identified the resource for each determination.


J.M. Ives after Frances Flora Palmer. Across the Continent, “Westward the course of empire Takes the Way.” brand-new York: Currier & Ives, ca. 1868. Lithograph. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (151)


Politics, Profits, and also the Transcontinental Railroad





Union Pacific Railroad











Mapping the West





Sections: Prologue | Before Lewis & Clark | Lewis & Clark | After Lewis & Clark


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