Sodium is a silver-colored steel which is soft enough to reduced via aknife. It is a really reenergetic steel, and is constantly uncovered normally inionic compounds, not in its pure metallic develop. Pure sodium metal reactsviolently (and also occasionally explosively) via water, creating sodium hydroxide,hydrogen gas, and also heat:
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) ——>2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Chlorine is apoisonous, yellow-green gas, via a very sharpodor, and also was offered in gas warfare during World War I.
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Sodium and also chlorine react with each other, but, to develop a substancethat is acquainted to virtually everyone in the world: sodium chloride,or table salt:
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) ——>2NaCl(s)
It is easy to check out why this reaction takes location so conveniently as soon as we look at iton an atomic level: sodium has actually one electron in its outermost (valence)shell, while chlorine has salso electrons in its valence shell. When asodium atom transfers an electron to a chlorine atom, creating a sodium cation(Na+) and a chloride anion (Cl-), both ions have completevalence shells, and also are energetically more steady.
The reactivity is very exothermic, creating a bbest yellow light and also agood deal of warm energy.
In the following demonstrations, a 2.5 liter bottle is filled via chlorinegas. A coating of sand also on the bottom of the bottle absorbs some of theheat energy created during the reaction, and avoids it from breaking. Alittle item of freshly-reduced metallic sodium is placed in the flask, and also then alittle amount of water is included, which reacts via the sodium and causes it toend up being hot. The warm sodium then reacts through the chlorine, creating abideal yellow light, a great deal of warm energy, and also fumes of sodium chloride,which deposits on the walls of the bottle.
In the initially video clip, the sodium flares up practically immediately uponreactivity with the water, and "burns out" quickly. (Don"t bconnect,or you"ll miss it.) In the second, water is included twice, to develop onebrief flash, complied with by a much much longer one. (This reaction can likewise be done with molten sodium, yet I"ve never before been braveenough to try that.)
Video Clip 1: REAL, 679 KB
!!! Hazards !!!
Do not disclose sodium steel to water! The reaction of sodium and also waterproduces hydrogen gas and warmth, which is not a great combination! Sodiumneed to be stored under mineral oil, or some other high-molecular weighthydrocarbon.
Chlorine gas is toxic, and incredibly irritating to the eyes and also mucousmembranes.
This reaction evolves an excellent deal of warmth energy; make certain that the flaskhas no cracks in it.
Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume 1. Madison: The College of Wisconsin Press, 1983, p. 61-63.
Lee R. Summerlin, Christie L. Borgford, and Julie B. Ealy, Chemical Demonstrations: A Sourcebook for Teachers, Volume 2, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Amerideserve to Chemical Society, 1988, p. 56-57.
John Emsley, The Elements, 3rd ed. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998, p. 56-57, 194-195.
David L. Heisermale, Exploring Chemical Elements and also their Compounds. New York: TAB Books, 1992, p. 43-48, 70-74.
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Martha Windholz (ed.), The Merck Index, 10th ed. Rahway: Merck & Co., Inc., 1983.