2 8. Justice Death The Meaning of Life 95 What Does It All Mean? 1 Introduction -1- This book is a brief introduction to philosophy for people who don"t know the first thing about the subject. People ordinarily study philosophy only when they go to college, and I suppose that most readers will be of college age or older. But that has nothing to do with the nature of the subject, and I would be very glad if the book were also of interest to intelligent high school students with a taste for abstract ideas and theoretical arguments -- should any of them read it. Our analytical capacities are often highly developed before we have learned a great deal about the world, and around the age of fourteen many people start to think about philosophical problems on their own -- about what really exists, whether we can know anything, whether -3- anthing is really right or wrong, whether life has any meaning, whether death is the end. These problems have been written about for thousands of years, but the philosophical raw material comes directly from the world and our relation to it, not from writings of the past. That is why they come up again and again, in the heads of people who haven"t read about them. This is a direct introduction to nine philosophical problems, each of which can be understood in itself, without reference to the history of thought. I shall not discuss the great philosophical writings of the past or the cultural background of those writings. The center of philosophy lies in certain questions which the reflective human mind finds naturally puzzling, and the best way to begin the study of philosophy is to think about them directly. Once you"ve done that, you are in a better position to appreciate the work of others who have tried to solve the same problems. Philosophy is different from science and from mathematics. Unlike science it doesn"t rely on experiments or observation, but only on thought. And unlike mathematics it has no formal methods of proof. It is done just by asking questions, arguing, trying out ideas and thinking of possible arguments against them, and wondering how our concepts really work. -4-
3 The main concern of philosophy is to question and understand very common ideas that all of us use every day without thinking about them. A historian may ask what happened at some time in the past, but a philosopher will ask, "What is time?" A mathematician may investigate the relations among numbers, but a philosopher will ask, "What is a number?" A physicist will ask what atoms are made of or what explains gravity, but a philosopher will ask how we can know there is anything outside of our own minds. A psychologist may investigate how children learn a language, but a philosopher will ask, "What makes a word mean anything?" Anyone can ask whether it"s wrong to sneak into a movie without paying, but a philosopher will ask, "What makes an action right or wrong?" We couldn"t get along in life without taking the ideas of time, number, knowledge, language, right and wrong for granted most of the time; but in philosophy we investigate those things themselves. The aim is to push our understanding of the world and ourselves a bit deeper. Obviously it isn"t easy. The more basic the ideas you are trying to investigate, the fewer tools you have to work with. There isn"t much you can assume or take for granted. So philosophy is a somewhat dizzying activity, and few of its results go unchallenged for long. Since I believe the best way to learn about philosophy is to think about particular questions, I won"t try to say more about its general nature. The nine problems we"ll consider are these: -5- Knowledge of the world beyond our minds Knowledge of minds other than our own The relation between mind and brain How language is possible Whether we have free will The basis of morality What inequalities are unjust The nature of death The meaning of life They are only a selection: there are many, many others. What I say will reflect my own view of these problems and will not necessarily represent what most philosophers think. There probably isn"t anything that most philosophers think about these questions anyway: philosophers disagree, and there are more than two sides to every philosophical question. My personal opinion is that most of these problems have not been solved, and that perhaps some of them never will be. But the object here is not to give answers -not even answers that I myself may think are right -- but to introduce you to the problems in a very preliminary way so that you can worry -6- about them yourself. Before learning a lot of philosophical theories it is better to get puzzled about the philosophical questions which those theories try to answer. And the best way to do that is to look at some possible solutions and see what is wrong with them.
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4 I"ll try to leave the problems open, but even if I say what I think, you have no reason to believe it unless you find it convincing. There are many excellent introductory texts that include selections from the great philosophers of the past and from more recent writings. This short book is not a substitute for that approach, but I hope it provides a first look at the subject that is as clear and direct as possible. If after reading it you decide to take a second look, you"ll see how much more there is to say about these problems than I say here. 2 How Do We Know Anything? If you think about it, the inside of your own mind is the only thing you can be sure of. -7- Whatever you believe -- whether it"s about the sun, moon, and stars, the house and neighborhood in which you live, history, science, other people, even the existence of your own body -is based on your experiences and thoughts, feelings and sense impressions. That"s all you have to go on directly, whether you see the book in your hands, or feel the floor under your feet, or remember that George Washington was the first president of the United States, or that water is H 2 O. Everything else is farther away from you than your inner experiences and thoughts, and reaches you only through them. -8- Ordinarily you have no doubts about the existence of the floor under your feet, or the tree outside the window, or your own teeth. In fact most of the time you don"t even think about the mental states that make you aware of those things: you seem to be aware of them directly. But how do you know they really exist? If you try to argue that there must be an external physical world, because you wouldn"t see buildings, people, or stars unless there were things out there that reflected or shed light into your eyes and caused your visual experiences, the reply is obvious: How do you know that? It"s just another claim about the external world and your relation to it, and it has to be based on the evidence of your senses. But you can rely on that specific evidence about how visual experiences are caused only if you can already rely in general on the contents of your mind to tell you about the external world. And that is exactly what has been called into question. If you try to prove the reliability of your impressions by appealing to your impressions, you"re arguing in a circle and won"t get anywhere. Would things seem any different to you if in fact all these things existed only in your mind -- if everything you took to be the real world outside was just a giant dream or hallucination, from which you will never wake up? If it were like that, -9- then of course you couldn"t wake up, as you can from a dream, because it would mean there was no "real" world to wake up into. So it wouldn"t be exactly like a normal dream
5 or hallucination. As we usually think of dreams, they go on in the minds of people who are actually lying in a real bed in a real house, even if in the dream they are running away from a homicidal lawnmor through the streets of Kansas City. We also assume that normal dreams depend on what is happening in the dreamer"s brain while he sleeps. But couldn"t all your experiences be like a giant dream with no external world outside it? How can you know that isn"t what"s going on? If all your experience were a dream with nothing outside, then any evidence you tried to use to prove to yourself that there was an outside world would just be part of the dream. If you knocked on the table or pinched yourself, you would hear the knock and feel the pinch, but that would be just one more thing going on inside your mind like everything else. It"s no use: If you want to find out whether what"s inside your mind is any guide to what"s outside your mind, you can"t depend on how things seem -- from inside your mind -- to give you the answer. But what else is there to depend on? All your evidence about anything has to come through your mind -- whether in the form of perception, -10- the testimony of books and other people, or memory -- and it is entirely consistent with everything you"re aware of that nothing at all exists except the inside of your mind. It"s even possible that you don"t have a body or a brain -- since your beliefs about that come only through the evidence of your senses. You"ve never seen your brain -- you just assume that everybody has one -- but even if you had seen it, or thought you had, that would have been just another visual experience. Maybe you, the subject of experience, are the only thing that exists, and there is no physical world at all -- no stars, no earth, no human bodies. Maybe there isn"t even any space. The most radical conclusion to draw from this would be that your mind is the only thing that exists. This view is called solipsism. It is a very lonely view, and not too many people have held it. As you can tell from that remark, I don"t hold it myself. If I were a solipsist I probably wouldn"t be writing this book, since I wouldn"t believe there was anybody else to read it. On the other hand, perhaps I would write it to make my inner life more interesting, by including the impression of the appearance of the book in print, of other people reading it and telling me their reactions, and so forth. I might even get the impression of royalties, if I"m lucky. Perhaps you are a solipsist: in that case you -11- will regard this book as a product of your own mind, coming into existence in your experience as you read it. Obviously nothing I can say can prove to you that I really exist, or that the book as a physical object exists. On the other hand, to conclude that you are the only thing that exists is more than the evidence warrants. You can"t know on the basis of what"s in your mind that there"s no world outside it. Perhaps the right conclusion is the more modest one that you don"t know
6 anything beyond your impressions and experiences. There may or may not be an external world, and if there is it may or may not be completely different from how it seems to you -- there"s no way for you to tell. This view is called skepticism about the external world. An even stronger form of skepticism is possible. Similar arguments seem to show that you don"t know anything even about your own past existence and experiences, since all you have to go on are the present contents of your mind, including memory impressions. If you can"t be sure that the world outside your mind exists now, how can you be sure that you yourself existed before now? How do you know you didn"t just come into existence a few minutes ago, complete with all your present memories? The only evidence that you couldn"t have come into exis tence a few minutes ago depends on beliefs about how people and their memories are produced, which rely in turn on beliefs about what has happened in the past. But to rely on those beliefs to prove that you existed in the past would again be to argue in a circle. You would be assuming the reality of the past to prove the reality of the past. It seems that you are stuck with nothing you can be sure of except the contents of your own mind at the present moment. And it seems that anything you try to do to argue your way out of this predicament will fail, because the argument will have to assume what you are trying to prove -- the existence of the external world beyond your mind. Suppose, for instance, you argue that there must be an external world, because it is incredible that you should be having all these experiences without there being some explanation in terms of external causes. The skeptic can make two replies. First, even if there are external causes, how can you tell from the contents of your experience what those causes are like? You"ve never observed any of them directly. Second, what is the basis of your idea that everything has to have an explanation? It"s true that in your normal, nonphilosophical conception of the world, processes like those which go on in -13- what you"re trying to figure out is how you know anything about the world outside your mind. And there is no way to prove such a principle just by looking at what"s inside your mind. However plausible the principle may seem to you, what reason do you have to believe that it applies to the world? Science won"t help us with this problem either, though it might seem to. In ordinary scientific thinking, we rely on general principles of explanation to pass from the way the world first seems to us to a different conception of what it is really like. We try to explain the appearances in terms of a theory that describes the reality behind them, a reality that we can"t observe directly. That is how physics and chemistry conclude that all the things we see around us are composed of invisibly small atoms. Could we argue that the general belief in the external world has the same kind of scientific backing as the belief in atoms? The skeptic"s answer is that the process of scientific reasoning raises the same skeptical problem we have been considering all along: Science is just as vulnerable as perception.
7 How can we know that the world outside our minds corresponds to our ideas of what would be a good -14- theoretical explanation of our observations? If we can"t establish the reliability of our sense experiences in relation to the external world, there"s no reason to think we can rely on our scientific theories either. There is another very different response to the problem. Some would argue that radical skepticism of the kind I have been talking about is meaningless, because the idea of an external reality that no one could ever discover is meaningless. The argument is that a dream, for instance, has to be something from which you can wake up to discover that you have been asleep; a hallucination has to be something which others (or you later) can see is not really there. Impressions and appearances that do not correspond to reality must be contrasted with others that do correspond to reality, or else the contrast between appearance and reality is meaningless. According to this view, the idea of a dream from which you can never wake up is not the idea of a dream at all: it is the idea of reality -the real world in which you live. Our idea of the things that exist is just our idea of what we can observe. (This view is sometimes called verificationism.) Sometimes our observations are mistaken, but that means they can be corrected by other observations -- as when you wake up from a dream or discover that what you thought was -15- a snake was just a shadow on the grass. But without some possibility of a correct view of how things are (either yours or someone else"s), the thought that your impressions of the world are not true is meaningless. If this is right, then the skeptic is kidding himself if he thinks he can imagine that the only thing that exists is his own mind. He is kidding himself, because it couldn"t be true that the physical world doesn"t"really exist, unless somebody could observe that it doesn"t exist. And what the skeptic is trying to imagine is precisely that there is no one to observe that or anything else -- except of course the skeptic himself, and all he can observe is the inside of his own mind. So solipsism is meaningless. It tries to subtract the external world from the totality of my impressions; but it fails, because if the external world is subtracted, they stop being mere impressions, and become instead perceptions of reality. Is this argument against solipsism and skepticism any good? Not unless reality can be defined as what we can observe. But are we really unable to understand the idea of a real world, or a fact about reality, that can"t be observed by anyone, human or otherwise? The skeptic will claim that if there is an external world, the things in it are observable because -16-
8 they exist, and not the other way around: that existence isn"t the same thing as observability. And although we get the idea of dreams and hallucinations from cases where we think we can observe the contrast between our experiences and reality, it certainly seems as if the same idea can be extended to cases where the reality is not observable. If that is right, it seems to follow that it is not meaningless to think that the world might consist of nothing but the inside of your mind, though neither you nor anyone else could find out that this was true. And if this is not meaningless, but is a possibility you must consider, there seems no way to prove that it is false, without arguing in a circle. So there may be no way out of the cage of your own mind. This is sometimes called the egocentric predicament. And yet, after all this has been said, I have to admit it is practically impossible to believe seriously that all the things in the world around you might not really exist. Our acceptance of the external world is instinctive and powerful: we cannot just get rid of it by philosophical arguments. Not only do we go on acting as if other people and things exist: we believe that they do, even after we"ve gone through the arguments which appear to show we have no grounds for this belief. (We may have grounds, within the overall -17- system of our beliefs about the world, for more particular beliefs about the existence of particular things: like a mouse in the breadbox, for example. But that is different. It assumes the existence of the external world.)if a belief in the world outside our minds comes so naturally to us, perhaps we don"t need grounds for it. We can just let it be and hope that we"re right. And that in fact is what most people do after giving up the attempt to prove it: even if they can"t give reasons against skepticism, they can"t live with it either. But this means that we hold on to most of our ordinary beliefs about the world in face of the fact that (a) they might be completely false, and (b) we have no basis for ruling out that possibility.we are left then with three questions: 1. Is it a meaningful possibility that the inside of your mind is the only thing that exists -- or that even if there is a world outside your mind, it is totally unlike what you believe it to be? 2. If these things are possible, do you have any way of proving to yourself that they are not actually true? 3. If you can"t prove that anything exists outside your own mind, is it all right to go on believing in the external world anyway? 3 Other Minds -18- There is one special kind of skepticism which continues to be a problem even if you assume that your mind is not the only thing there is -that the physical world you seem to see and feel around you, including your own body, really exists. That is skepticism about
9 the nature or even existence of minds or experiences other than your own. How much do you really know about what goes on in anyone else"s mind? Clearly you observe only the bodies of other creatures, including people. You watch what they do, listen to what they say and to the other sounds they make, and see how they respond to their environment -- what things attract them and what things repel them, what they eat, and so forth. You can also cut open other creatures and look -19- at their physical insides, and perhaps compare their anatomy with yours. But none of this will give you direct access to their experiences, thoughts, and feelings. The only experiences you can actually have are your own: if you believe anything about the mental lives of others, it is on the basis of observing their physical construction and behavior. To take a simple example, how do you know, when you and a friend are eating chocolate ice cream, whether it tastes the same to him as it tastes to you? You can try a taste of his ice cream, but if it tastes the same as yours, that only means it tastes the same to you: you haven"t experienced the way it tastes to him. There seems to be no way to compare the two flavor experiences directly. Well, you might say that since you"re both human beings, and you can both distinguish among flavors of ice cream -- for example you can both tell the difference between chocolate and vanilla with your eyes closed -- it"s likely that your flavor experiences are similar. But how do you know that? The only connection you"ve ever observed between a type of ice cream and a flavor is in your own case; so what reason do you have to think that similar correlations hold for other human beings? Why isn"t it just as consistent with all the evidence that chocolate tastes to him the way vanilla tastes to you, and vice versa? -20- The same question could be asked about other kinds of experience. How do you know that red things don"t look to your friend the way yellow things look to you? Of course if you ask him how a fire engine looks, he"ll say it looks red, like blood, and not yellow, like a dandelion; but that"s because he, like you, uses the word "red" for the color that blood and fire engines look to him, whatever it is. Maybe it"s what you call yellow, or what you call blue, or maybe it"s a color experience you"ve never had, and can"t even imagine. To deny this, you have to appeal to an assumption that flavor and color experiences are uniformly correlated with certain physical stimulations of the sense organs, whoever undergoes them. But the skeptic would say you have no evidence for that assumption, and because of the kind of assumption it is, you couldn"t have any evidence for it. All you can observe is the correlation in your own case. Faced with this argument, you might first concede that there is some uncertainty here. The correlation between stimulus and experience may not be exactly the same from one
10 person to another: there may be slight shades of difference between two people"s color or flavor experience of the same type of ice cream. In fact, since people are physically different from one another, this wouldn"t be surprising. But, you might say, -21- the difference in experience can"t be too radical, or else we"d be able to tell. For instance, chocolate ice cream couldn"t taste to your friend the way a lemon tastes to you, otherwise his mouth would pucker up when he ate it. But notice that this claim assumes another correlation from one person to another: a correlation between inner experience and certain kinds of observable reaction. And the same question arises about that. You"ve observed the connection between puckering of the mouth and the taste you call sour only in your own case: how do you know it exists in other people? Maybe what makes your friend"s mouth pucker up is an experience like the one you get from eating oatmeal. If we go on pressing these kinds of questions relentlessly enough, we will move from a mild and harmless skepticism about whether chocolate ice cream tastes exactly the same to you and to your friend, to a much more radical skepticism about whether there is any similarity between your experiences and his. How do you know that when he puts something in his mouth he even has an experience of the kind that you would call a flavor? For all you know, it could be something you would call a sound -- or maybe it"s unlike anything you"ve ever experienced, or could imagine If we continue on this path, it leads finally to the most radical skepticism of all about other minds. How do you even know that your friend is conscious? How do you know that there are any minds at all besides your own? The only example you"ve ever directly observed of a correlation between mind, behavior, anatomy, and physical circumstances is yourself. Even if other people and animals had no experiences whatever, no mental inner life of any kind, but were just elaborate biological machines, they would look just the same to you. So how do you know that"s not what they are? How do you know that the beings around you aren"t all mindless robots? You"ve never seen into their minds -- you couldn"t -- and their physical behavior could all be produced by purely physical causes. Maybe your relatives, your neighbors, your cat and your dog have no inner experiences whatever. If they don"t, there is no way you could ever find it out. You can"t even appeal to the evidence of their behavior, including what they say -- because that assumes that in them outer behavior is connected with inner experience as it is in you; and that"s just what you don"t know. To consider the possibility that none of the people around you may be conscious produces an uncanny feeling. On the one hand it seems -23-
11 conceivable, and no evidence you could possibly have can rule it out decisively. On the other hand it is something you can"t really believe is possible: your conviction that there are minds in those bodies, sight behind those eyes, hearing in those ears, etc., is instinctive. But if its power comes from instinct, is it really knowledge? Once you admit the possibility that the belief in other minds is mistaken, don"t you need something more reliable to justify holding on to it? There is another side to this question, which goes completely in the opposite direction. Ordinarily we believe that other human beings are conscious, and almost everyone believes that other mammals and birds are conscious too. But people differ over whether fish are conscious, or insects, worms, and jellyfish. They are still more doubtful about whether onecelled animals like amoebae and paramecia have conscious experiences, even though such creatures react conspicuously to stimuli of various kinds. Most people believe that plants aren"t conscious; and almost no one believes that rocks are conscious, or kleenex, or automobiles, or mountain lakes, or cigarettes. And to take another biological example, most of us would say, if we thought about it, that the individual cells of which our bodies are composed do not have any conscious experiences How do we know all these things? How do you know that when you cut a branch off a tree it doesn"t hurt the tree -- only it can"t express its pain because it can"t move? (Or maybe it loves having its branches pruned.) How do you know that the muscle cells in your heart don"t feel pain or excitement when you run up a flight of stairs? How do you know that a kleenex doesn"t feel anything when you blow your nose into it? And what about computers? Suppose computers are developed to the point where they can be used to control robots that look on the outside like dogs, respond in complicated ways to the environment, and behave in many ways just like dogs, though they are just a mass of circuitry and silicon chips on the inside? Would we have any way of knowing whether such machines were conscious? These cases are different from one another, of course. If a thing is incapable of movement, it can"t give any behavioral evidence of feeling or perception. And if it isn"t a natural organism, it is radically different from us in internal constitution. But what grounds do we have for thinking that only things that behave like us to some degree and that have an observable physical structure roughly like ours are capable of having experiences of any kind? Perhaps trees feel things in a way totally different from us, but we -25- have no way of finding out about it, because we have no way of discovering the correlations between experience and observable manifestations or physical conditions in their case. We could discover such correlations only if we could observe both the experiences and the external manifestations together: but there is no way we can observe the experiences directly, except in our own case. And for the same reason there is no way we could observe the absence of any experiences, and consequently the absence of any
12 such correlations, in any other case. You can"t tell that a tree has no experience, by looking inside it, any more than you can tell that a worm has experience, by looking inside it. So the question is: what can you really know about the conscious life in this world beyond the fact that you yourself have a conscious mind? Is it possible that there might be much less conscious life than you assume (none except yours), or much more (even in things you assume to be unconscious)? 4 The Mind-Body Problem -26- Let"s forget about skepticism, and assume the physical world exists, including your body and your brain; and let"s put aside our skepticism about other minds. I"ll assume you"re conscious if you assume I am. Now what might be the relation between consciousness and the brain? Everybody knows that what happens in consciousness depends on what happens to the body. If you stub your toe it hurts. If you close your eyes you can"t see what"s in front of you. If you bite into a Hershey bar you taste chocolate. If someone conks you on the head you pass out. The evidence shows that for anything to happen in your mind or consciousness, something has to happen in your brain. (You wouldn"t feel any pain from stubbing your toe if the nerves in your leg and spine didn"t carry impulses from -27- the toe to your brain.) We don"t know what happens in the brain when you think, "I wonder whether I have time to get a haircut this afternoon." But we"re pretty sure something does -something involving chemical and electrical changes in the billions of nerve cells that your brain is made of. In some cases, we know how the brain affects the mind and how the mind affects the brain. We know, for instance, that the stimulation of certain brain cells near the back of the head produces visual experiences. And we know that when you decide to help yourself to another piece of cake, certain other brain cells send out impulses to the muscles in your arm. We don"t know many of the details, but it is clear that there are complex relations between what happens in your mind and the physical processes that go on in your brain. So far, all of this belongs to science, not philosophy. But there is also a philosophical question about the relation between mind and brain, and it is this: Is your mind something different from your brain, though connected to it, or is it your brain? Are your thoughts, feelings, perceptions, sensations, and wishes things that happen in addition to all the physical processes in your brain, or are they themselves some of those physical processes?
13 -28- What happens, for instance, when you bite into a chocolate bar? The chocolate melts on your tongue and causes chemical changes in your taste buds; the taste buds send some electrical impulses along the nerves leading from your tongue to your brain, and when those impulses reach the brain they produce further physical changes there; finally, you taste the taste of chocolate. What is that? Could it just be a physical event in some of your brain cells, or does it have to be something of a completely different kind? If a scientist took off the top of your skull and looked into your brain while you were eating the chocolate bar, all he would see is a grey mass of neurons. If he used instruments to measure what was happening inside, he would detect complicated physical processes of many different kinds. But would he find the taste of chocolate? It seems as if he couldn"t find it in your brain, because your experience of tasting chocolate is locked inside your mind in a way that makes it unobservable by anyone else -- even if he opens up your skull and looks inside your brain. Your experiences are inside your mind with a kind of insideness that is different from the way that your brain is inside your head. Someone else can open up your head and see what"s inside, but -29- they can"t cut open your mind and look into it -at least not in the same way. It"s not just that the taste of chocolate is a flavor and therefore can"t be seen. Suppose a scientist were crazy enough to try to observe your experience of tasting chocolate by licking your brain while you ate a chocolate bar. First of all, your brain probably wouldn"t taste like chocolate to him at all. But even if it did, he wouldn"t have succeeded in getting into your mind and observing your experience of tasting chocolate. He would just have discovered, oddly enough, that when you taste chocolate, your brain changes so that it tastes like chocolate to other people. He would have his taste of chocolate and you would have yours. If what happens in your experience is inside your mind in a way in which what happens in your brain is not, it looks as though your experiences and other mental states can"t just be physical states of your brain. There has to be more to you than your body with its humming nervous system. One possible conclusion is that there has to be a soul, attached to your body in some way which allows them to interact. If that"s true, then you are made up of two very different things: a complex physical organism, and a soul which is purely mental. (This view is called dualism, for obvious reasons.) -30- But many people think that belief in a soul is old-fashioned and unscientific. Everything else in the world is made of physical matter -- different combinations of the same chemical elements. Why shouldn"t we be? Our bodies grow by a complex physical process from the single cell produced by the joining of sperm and egg at conception.
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14 Ordinary matter is added gradually in such a way that the cell turns into a baby, with arms, legs, eyes, ears, and a brain, able to move and feel and see, and eventually to talk and think. Some people believe that this complex physical system is sufficient by itself to give rise to mental life. Why shouldn"t it be? Anyway, how can mere philosophical argument show that it isn"t? Philosophy can"t tell us what stars or diamonds are made of, so how can it tell us what people are or aren"t made of? The view that people consist of nothing but physical matter, and that their mental states are physical states of their brains, is called physicalism (or sometimes materialism). Physicalists don"t have a specific theory of what process in the brain can be identified as the experience of tasting chocolate, for instance. But they believe that mental states are just states of the brain, and that there"s no philosophical reason to think they can"t be. The details will have to be discovered by science. The idea is that we might discover that expe riences are really brain processes just as we have discovered that other familiar things have a real nature that we couldn"t have guessed until it was revealed by scientific investigation. For instance, it turns out that diamonds are composed of carbon, the same material as coal: the atoms are just differently arranged. And water, as we all know, is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, even though those two elements are nothing like water when taken by themselves. So while it might seem surprising that the experience of tasting chocolate could be nothing but a complicated physical event in your brain, it would be no stranger than lots of things that have been discovered about the real nature of ordinary objects and processes. Scientists have discovered what light is, how plants grow, how muscles move - - it is only a matter of time before they discover the biological nature of the mind. That"s what physicalists think. A dualist would reply that those other things are different. When we discover the chemical composition of water, for instance, we are dealing with something that is clearly out there in the physical world -- something we can all see and touch. When we find out that it"s made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, we"re just breaking down an external physical substance into smaller physical parts. It is an essential feature -32- of this kind of analysis that we are not giving a chemical breakdown of the way water looks, feels, and tastes to us. Those things go on in our inner experience, not in the water that we have broken down into atoms. The physical or chemical analysis of water leaves them aside. But to discover that tasting chocolate was really just a brain process, we would have to analyze something mental -- not an externally observed physical substance but an inner taste sensation -- in terms of parts that are physical. And there is no way that a large number of physical events in the brain, however complicated, could be the parts out of
15 which a taste sensation was composed. A physical whole can be analyzed into smaller physical parts, but a mental process can"t be. Physical parts just can"t add up to a mental whole. There is another possible view which is different from both dualism and physicalism. Dualism is the view that you consist of a body plus a soul, and that your mental life goes on in your soul. Physicalism is the view that your mental life consists of physical processes in your brain. But another possibility is that your mental life goes on in your brain, yet that all those experiences, feelings, thoughts, and desires are not physical processes in your brain. This would mean that the grey mass of billions of nerve cells in your skull -33- is not just a physical object. It has lots of physical properties -- great quantities of chemical and electrical activity go on in it -- but it has mental processes going on in it as well. The view that the brain is the seat of consciousness, but that its conscious states are not just physical states, is called dual aspect theory. It is called that because it means that when you bite into a chocolate bar, this produces in your brain a state or process with two aspects: a physical aspect involving various chemical and electrical changes, and a mental aspect -- the flavor experience of chocolate. When this process occurs, a scientist looking into your brain will be able to observe the physical aspect, but you yourself will undergo, from the inside, the mental aspect: you will have the sensation of tasting chocolate. If this were true, your brain itself would have an inside that could not be reached by an outside observer even if he cut it open. It would feel, or taste, a certain way to you to have that process going on in your brain. We could express this view by saying that you are not a body plus a soul -- that you are just a body, but your body, or at least your brain, is not just a physical system. It is an object with both physical and mental aspects: it can be dissected, but it also has the kind of inside that can"t be exposed by dissection. There"s some thing it"s like from the inside to taste chocolate because there"s something it"s like from the inside to have your brain in the condition that is produced when you eat a chocolate bar. Physicalists believe that nothing exists but the physical world that can be studied by science: the world of objective reality. But then they have to find room somehow for feelings, desires, thoughts, and experiences -- for you and me -in such a world. One theory offered in defense of physicalism is that the mental nature of your mental states consists in their relations to things that cause them and things they cause. For instance, when you stub your toe and feel pain, the pain is something going on in your brain. But its painfulness is not just the sum of its physical characteristics, and it is not some mysterious nonphysical property either. Rather, what makes it a pain is that it is the
16 kind of state of your brain that is usually caused by injury, and that usually causes you to yell and hop around and avoid the thing that caused the injury. And that could be a purely physical state of your brain. But that doesn"t seem enough to make something a pain. It"s true that pains are caused by injury, and they do make you hop and yell. But they also feel a certain way, and that seems to be something different from all their relations to -35- causes and effects, as well as all the physical properties they may have -- if they are in fact events in your brain. I myself believe that this inner aspect of pain and other conscious experiences cannot be adequately analyzed in terms of any system of causal relations to physical stimuli and behavior, however complicated. There seem to be two very different kinds of things going on in the world: the things that belong to physical reality, which many different people can observe from the outside, and those other things that belong to mental reality, which each of us experiences from the inside in his own case. This isn"t true only of human beings: dogs and cats and horses and birds seem to be conscious, and fish and ants and beetles probably are too. Who knows where it stops? We won"t have an adequate general conception of the world until we can explain how, when a lot of physical elements are put together in the right way, they form not just a functioning biological organism but a conscious being. If consciousness itself could be identified with some kind of physical state, the way would be open for a unified physical theory of mind and body, and therefore perhaps for a unified physical theory of the universe. But the reasons against a purely physical theory of consciousness are strong enough to make it seem likely that a physical the ory of the whole of reality is impossible. Physical science has progressed by leaving the mind out of what it tries to explain, but there may be more to the world than can be understood by physical science. 5 The Meaning of Words -37- How can a word -- a noise or a set of marks on paper -- mean something? There are some words, like "bang" or "whisper," which sound a bit like what they refer to, but usually there is no resemblance between a name and the thing it is the name of. The relation in general must be something entirely different. There are many types of words: some of them name people or things, others name qualities or activities, others refer to relations between things or events, others name numbers, places, or times, and some, like "and" and "of," have meaning only because
17 they contribute to the meaning of larger statements or questions in which they appear as parts. In fact all words do their real work in this way: their meaning is -38- really something they contribute to the meaning of sentences or statements. Words are mostly used in talking and writing, rather than just as labels. However, taking that as understood, let us ask how a word can have a meaning. Some words can be defined in terms of other words: "square" for example means "four-sided equilateral equiangular plane figure." And most of the terms in that definition can also be defined. But definitions can"t be the basis of meaning for all words, or we"d go forever in a circle. Eventually we must get to some words which have meaning directly. Take the word "tobacco," which may seem like an easy example. It refers to a kind of plant whose Latin name most of us don"t know, and whose leaves are used to make cigars and cigarettes. All of us have seen and smelled tobacco, but the word as you use it refers not just to the samples of the stuff that you have seen, or that is around you when you use the word, but to all examples of it, whether or not you know of their existence. You may have learned the word by being shown some samples, but you won"t understand it if you think it is just the name of those samples. So if you say, "I wonder if more tobacco was smoked in China last year than in the entire -39- Western hemisphere," you have asked a meaningful question, and it has an answer, even if you can"t find it out. But the meaning of the question, and its answer, depend on the fact that when you use the word "tobacco," it refers to every example of the substance in the world -throughout all past and future time, in fact -- to every cigarette smoked in China last year, to every cigar smoked in Cuba, and so forth. The other words in the sentence limit the reference to particular times and places, but the word "tobacco" can be used to ask such a question only because it has this enormous but special reach, beyond all your experience to every sample of a certain kind of stuff. How does the word do that? How can a mere noise or scribble reach that far? Not, obviously, because of its sound or look. And not because of the relatively small number of examples of tobacco that you"ve encountered, and that have been in the same room when you have uttered or heard or read the word. There"s something else going on, and it is something general, which applies to everyone"s use of the word. You and I, who have never met and have encountered different samples of tobacco, use the word with the same meaning. If we both use the word to ask the question about China and the Western hemisphere, it is the same question, and the answer -40- is the same. Further, a speaker of Chinese can ask the same question, using the Chinese word with the same meaning. Whatever relation the word "tobacco" has to the stuff itself, other words can have as well.
18 This very naturally suggests that the relation of the word "tobacco" to all those plants, cigarettes, and cigars in the past, present, and future, is indirect. The word as you use it has something else behind it -- a concept or idea or thought -- which somehow reaches out to all the tobacco in the universe. This, however, raises new problems. First, what kind of thing is this middleman? Is it in your mind, or is it something outside your mind that you somehow latch onto? It would seem to have to be something that you and I and a speaker of Chinese can all latch onto, in order to mean the same thing by our words for tobacco. But how, with our very different experiences of the word and the plant, do we do that? Isn"t this just as hard to explain as our all being able to refer to the same enormous and widespread amount of stuff by our different uses of the word or words? Isn"t there just as much of a problem about how the word means the idea or concept (whatever that is) as there was before about how the word means the plant or substance? -41- Not only that, but there"s also a problem about how this idea or concept is related to all the samples of actual tobacco. What kind of thing is it that it can have this exclusive connection with tobacco and nothing else? It looks as though we"ve just added to the problem. In trying to explain the relation between the word "tobacco" and tobacco by interposing between them the idea or concept of tobacco, we"ve just created the further need to explain the relations between the word and the idea, and between the idea and the stuff. With or without the concept or idea, the problem seems to be that very particular sounds, marks, and examples are involved in each person"s use of a word, but the word applies to something universal, which other particular speakers can also mean by that word or other words in other languages. How can anything as particular as the noise I make when I say "tobacco" mean something so general that I can use it to say, "I bet people will be smoking tobacco on Mars 200 years from now." You might think that the universal element is provided by something we all have in our minds when we use the word. But what do we all have in our minds? Consciously, at least, I don"t need anything more than the word itself in my mind to think, "Tobacco is getting more expensive -42- every year." Still, I certainly may have an image of some sort in my mind when I use the word: perhaps of a plant, or of some dried leaves, or of the inside of a cigarette. Still, this will not help to explain the generality of the meaning of the word, because any such image will be a particular image. It will be an image of the appearance or smell of a particular sample of tobacco; and how is that supposed to encompass all actual and possible examples of tobacco? Also, even if you have a certain picture in your mind when you hear or use the word "tobacco," every other person will probably have a different picture; yet that does not prevent us all from using the word with the same meaning. The mystery of meaning is that it doesn"t seem to be located anywhere -- not in the word,
19 not in the mind, not in a separate concept or idea hovering between the word, the mind, and the things we are talking about. And yet we use language all the time, and it enables us to think complicated thoughts which span great reaches of time and space. You can talk about how many people in Okinawa are over five feet tall, or whether there is life in other galaxies, and the little noises you make will be sentences which are true or false in virtue of complicated facts about far away things that you will probably never encounter directly You may think I have been making too much of the universal reach of language. In ordinary life, most of the statements and thoughts we use language for are much more local and particular. If I say "Pass the salt," and you pass me the salt, this doesn"t have to involve any universal meaning of the word "salt," of the kind that"s present when we ask, "How long ago in the history of our galaxy was salt first formed out of sodium and chlorine?" Words are often used simply as tools in the relations between people. On a sign in a bus station you see the little figure with the skirt, and an arrow, and you know that"s the way to the ladies" room. Isn"t most of language just a system of signals and responses like that? Well, perhaps some of it is, and perhaps that"s how we start to learn to use words: "Daddy," "Mommy," "No," "All gone." But it doesn"t stop there, and it"s not clear how the simple transactions possible using one or two words at a time can help us to understand the use of language to describe and misdescribe the world far beyond our present neighborhood It seems more likely, in fact, that the use of language for much larger purposes shows us something about what is going on when we use it on a smaller scale. A statement like, "There"s salt on the table," -44- means the same whether it"s said for practical reasons during lunch, or as part of the description of a situation distant in space and time, or merely as a hypothetical description of an imaginary possibility. It means the same whether it is true or false, and whether or not the speaker or hearer know if it"s true or false. Whatever is going on in the ordinary, practical case must be something general enough also to explain these other, quite different cases where it means the same thing. It is of course important that language is a social phenomenon. Each person doesn"t make it up for himself. When as children we learn a language, we get plugged into an already existing system, in which millions of people have been using the same words to talk to one another for centuries. My use of the word "tobacco" doesn"t have a meaning just on its own, but rather as part of the much wider use of that word in English. (Even if I were to adopt a private code, in which I used the word "blibble" to mean tobacco, I"d do it by defining "blibble" to myself in terms of the common word "tobacco.") We still have to explain how my use of the word gets its content from all those other uses, most of which I don"t know about -- but putting my words into this larger context may seem to help
20 explain their universal meaning But this doesn"t solve the problem. When I use the word, it may have its meaning as part of the English language, but how does the use of the word by all those other speakers of English give it its universal range, well beyond all the situations in which it is actually used? The problem of the relation of language to the world is not so different whether we are talking about one sentence or billions. The meaning of a word contains all its possible uses, true and false, not only its actual ones, and the actual uses are only a tiny fraction of the possible ones. We are small finite creatures, but meaning enables us with the help of sounds or marks on paper to grasp the whole world and many things in it, and even to invent things that do not exist and perhaps never will. The problem is to explain how this is possible: How does anything we say or write mean anything -- including all the words in this book? 6 Free Will -46- Suppose you"re going through a cafeteria line and when you come to the desserts, you hesitate between a peach and a big wedge of chocolate cake with creamy icing. The cake looks good, but you know it"s fattening. Still, you take it and eat it with pleasure. The next day you look in the mirror or get on the scale and think, "I wish I hadn"t eaten that chocolate cake. I could have had a peach instead." "I could have had a peach instead." What does that mean, and is it true? Peaches were available when you went through the cafeteria line: you had the opportunity to take a peach instead. But that isn"t all you mean. You mean you could have taken the peach instead of the cake. You could have done some thing different from what you actually did. Before you made up your mind, it was open whether you would take fruit or cake, and it was only your choice that decided which it would be. Is that it? When you say, "I could have had a peach instead," do you mean that it depended only on your choice? You chose chocolate cake, so that"s what you had, but if you had chosen the peach, you would have had that. This still doesn"t seem to be enough. You don"t mean only that if you had chosen the peach, you would have had it. When you say, "I could have had a peach instead," you also mean that you could have chosen it -- no "ifs" about it. But what does that mean? It can"t be explained by pointing out other occasions when you have chosen fruit. And it can"t be explained by saying that if you had thought about it harder, or if a friend had