I\"ve just set up Ubuntu recently, and also according to proposal online, I developed my home brochure much larger than the source directory. However, I discovered that the system instantly installs software application in the root directory, which takes increase a the majority of space, and also my home catalog is nearly empty.

I\"m a bit confused why the is actually produced larger. Need to software be mounted in the home directory instead? and where need to I put the folders the prebuilt binaries download from other sources?


Before straight answering her question, it\"s necessary to be clear on the distinction between a directory and also a partition. A solitary partition have the right to hold multiple directories. In Linux, partitions that host filesystems room normally mounted (made accessible) making use of a catalog as a mountain point. Thus, /home could be simply a magazine on the root (/) partition or /home might be the mount suggest for a separate partition. Your question provides the word \"directory\" in a context that renders it clean you supposed \"partition.\" I\"m clarifying this difference because this difference is crucial to part of the prize to your question. In fact, there\"s yet another complication, due to the fact that logical volume manager (LVM) enables a partition to host multiple filesystems the are placed at various places. For the below, though, I\"ll assume you\"re not using LVM, so the \"partition\" and \"filesystem\" deserve to be thought about synonymous (except because that the swap partition).

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The optimum sizes of miscellaneous partitions depends on what you suppose to download to them. Because that instance, with separate root (/), /home, and swap partitions, however no various other (Ubuntu) partitions:

If you install a lot of software, you\"ll want a bigger root (/) 보다 if friend install tiny software. Also so, the requirements of software program packages hardly ever exceed about 30 GB.Some non-software go in root (/). This group includes log files, databases (which normally go in /var), contents for net servers, and the system-wide temporary brochure (/tmp). If girlfriend have large needs for any type of of this things, you may need one of two people a bigger root (/) partition or to break-up off the ar of these big directories to their very own partitions. Friend might break-up off /var, or a subdirectory the it, come its very own partition if you suppose to it is in storing vast files there, as can be true ~ above some species of network servers. Together non-software needs on source (/) are generally modest for desktop systems, yet they have the right to be far-ranging for network servers.For a typical desktop computer computer, the space consumed on root (/) won\"t walk up really much end time, because an individual files don\"t walk there -- just program binaries, log records (which get rotated out and deleted in time), and other system files. Root (/) consumption goes up mainly because you install brand-new software. If you install a program and also then find you\"re not utilizing it, uninstalling it can be worthwhile, an especially if root (/) is pour it until it is full up.The /home catalog is where the vast bulk of user files reside. (Some temporary papers go in /tmp and also there space some various other exceptions, though, at the very least one of i m sorry is very important -- see the following bullet point.) On one Ubuntu-only installation, this method that your an individual photos, MP3 files, videos, word handling documents, web browsing cache, etc., all reside in /home. Thus, the space demands on /home often tend to go up over time as you use the computer system -- you copy photos from her digital camera here, include music here, save word processing documents here, and so on.One complication is that numerous Ubuntu installations room to computer systems that dual-boot v Windows. On this systems, many user data records reside top top the windows C: partition, not in the Ubuntu /home partition. If you proceed with this pattern, the /home partition will hold relatively couple of files and so should more than likely be smaller sized than the root (/) partition; or it can be removed entirely, leaving the /home catalog on the source (/) partition.

Thus, if Ubuntu is your just OS, and also if you\"re installation on a contemporary hard disc or even SSD (200GB or more, and often in overfill of 1TB), possibilities are /home should be lot bigger than root (/).

OTOH, if your disk is unusually tiny by modern-day standards or if you\"re dual-booting with Windows and also you want to keep most of your documents (especially huge ones) obtainable to both OSes, it\"s probably ideal to one of two people omit a separate /home partition (leaving its files in the root partition as a straightforward /home directory) or store a fairly small /home partition -- perhaps even smaller 보다 root (/).

One further variant is precious mentioning: In a dual-boot configuration, experts often prefer setting aside one or more separate partitions come hold papers shared in between the OSes. That is, you\"ll have the Ubuntu source (/) and perhaps /home partitions, the windows C: partition to organize Windows and its routine files, and another partition (perhaps D: in Windows and also /home/yourusername/shared in Ubuntu) to organize shared files. The benefit of this is the you have the right to restrict accessibility to the home windows C: partition indigenous Linux, do it less likely the a bug or user error will trash the home windows installation. You\"ll likewise be maybe to perform a full re-install of windows without wiping the shared-data partition. You can use any type of filesystem you favor on the shared-data partition, so long as both OSes know it. NTFS is the many common an option for this, however you can use FAT if you don\"t mind its limitations; and some Linux filesystems have Windows drivers, therefore you might use one of them if girlfriend prefer.

With those generalities the end of the way, it\"s helpful to consider some genuine sizes:

root (/) -- Ubuntu can install to a source (/) partition as small as around 5 GB, IIRC; however, if you start installing huge programs, that can easily climb to 2 or 3 times that value. Thus, the normal recommended variety is something like 10-30 GB, with the caveat the it have the right to go even greater than the for some users -- yet for the bulk of \"normal\" users, also 20 GB is probably adequate if you have a separate /home partition.swap -- ns haven\"t mentioned swap much, but will for this question of sizing. In the old job (~15 year ago), the general recommendation to be to do swap an are about double your ram size. Now that\"s normally overkill. If you use suspend-to-disk (which is not configured in Ubuntu by default), swap room should it is in at least as large as your easily accessible RAM. If you don\"t usage this feature, it deserve to be smaller than that, however having some swap an are is desirable, since it permits the kernel to optimize RAM use to improve performance. Note likewise that swap an are can it is in a file on a filesystem rather than (or in addition to) a swap partition. (IIRC, suspend-to-disk needs a swap partition, though.) Overall, in most situations I\"d say half your RAM dimension is more than likely a decent dimension for a swap partition./home -- together a very first approximation, when you\"ve established how much room you require for source (/) and swap, you must give everything else come /home. The exception would it is in if there\"s very small space left. Because that instance, if you\"re dual-booting through Windows and also want to offer Linux just 30 GB, climate you\"ll have actually next come nothing left end by the time you allocate, say, 20 GB to source (/) and 4 GB come swap. Something similar would take place if you\"re installation on a tiny tablet computer or really old computer with a little disk. In this case, you might as well omit /home.

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Other partitions -- In some cases, you might want various other partitions for /var, /tmp, and also so on. These aren\"t needed for typical desktop configurations, though. Smallish (~500 MB) /boot and/or /boot/efi partitions are periodically required, as well -- but if girlfriend don\"t currently have these and also your mechanism is booting, don\"t worry about them. As detailed earlier, you could want a shared-data partition because that use with Windows. If friend want many of her data come be common in this way, you could omit /home and allocate the room to a shared-data partition. (You have to not mountain an NTFS or FAT volume at /home since Ubuntu relies on functions not listed by these filesystems because that some records in your house directory. You can mount a shared-data partition in a subdirectory of your home directory, though. If you usage Windows filesystem motorists for Linux filesystems, girlfriend could likewise give Windows access to your Ubuntu /home partition.)

In the end, making an optimized partitioning system depends on one intimate knowledge of your very own needs, accessible disk space, and also what\"s already been offered (by an additional OS, because that instance). If girlfriend stick with Ubuntu, you\"ll at some point figure this the end for yourself; yet there is no one-size-fits-all solution, so ns can\"t simply offer you a set of numbers. Also generalities like whether /home must be bigger or smaller than root (/) differ from one surroundings to one more -- back if /home is smaller sized than source (/) once you monitor my synopsis above, there\"s a an excellent chance (but not a certainty) the omitting /home and also increasing the size of source (/) by the amount would certainly be best.