Did girlfriend know....Although Alice Paul and also Carrie Chapman Catt to be both fighting for woman suffrage, castle often fought each various other as they worked for passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.

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On the morning the April 2, 1917, suffragists gathered in ~ the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. For a celebratory breakfast to honor Jeannette Rankin that Montana. Rankin would be sworn in later that day together the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress. Next to Rankin on the dais satellite two an effective leaders the the mrs suffrage movement. On her left was Alice Paul, founder of the nationwide Woman\"s Party (NWP). ~ above Rankin\"s right sat the chairman of the nationwide American mrs Suffrage association (NAWSA), Carrie Chapman Catt. Paul and also Catt were joined on that day in celebration event of Rankin\"s achievement. Both had dedicated their resides to the reason of woman suffrage and also the fight for equality. Yet in every various other way, they to be deeply divided.A cropped variation of the photograph above, handled the job of Rankin\"s swearing in, appeared in the national Woman\"s Party\"s publication, The Suffragist, a few days later. It accompanied an post titled \"Jeannette Rankin provides Her very first Speech in Washington.\" If you look closely, you can see the the photo has actually been altered. Something come the appropriate of Rankin ~ above the balcony has actually been scratched out.
Unaltered photograph of Jeannette Rankin on the balcony that NAWSA headquarters ~ above April 2, 1917. Carrie Chapman Catt is next to her

Library the Congress

In the original photo, Carrie Chapman Catt stood on the balcony v Rankin. Why did the NWP scrape Catt out of the picture? that is possible that it was simply to develop a cleaner variation of the image to companion the article (the chop marks are also visible top top the picture above.) the is also very likely the the NWP go not want to incorporate Catt in their publication, and Catt probably did not want any kind of association with the NWP and also Alice Paul.
Alice Paul in undated photograph

Bain News Service, Library of Congress

The an initial clash between Alice Paul and also Carrie Chapman Catt come in November 1913 during the NAWSA Convention in Washington, D.C. Paul speak to the convention about her job-related as the head that the conference Committee increasing awareness about the need for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution ensuring women’s appropriate to vote throughout the country. Paul had actually organized the woman Suffrage Procession down Pennsylvania path on march 3, 1913, the day before Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration. She spoke proudly about her great triumph gaining publicity for the movement, and also her effective fundraising efforts. Catt stand up during the speech and criticized Alice. She accused Paul of acquisition too much credit for a movement she had actually only freshly joined. Catt, who had actually been functioning for suffrage for decades, implied the Paul to be trying come steal power away from the NAWSA leadership and also that she didn’t know her place.In a letter to Lucy Burns, co-chair of the conference Committee, NAWSA president Anna Howard Shaw synthetic up the objections come what she and Catt witnessed as the militant tactics of the younger suffragists:

Carrie Chapman Catt, ca 1913

National Woman\"s Party records, Library the Congress

“You may think we space all a collection of old fogies and perhaps us are, however I, for one, say thanks to heaven that i am as much of one old fogy as I am…It calls for a great deal much more courage to occupational steadily and also steadfastly for 40 or 50 year to get an finish than it does to execute an impulsively rashes thing and also lose it.”Soon after the general public confrontation v Catt, Alice Paul broke away from NAWSA to operation her very own suffrage association. She established the conference Union for mrs Suffrage which ended up being the national Woman’s Party in 1916. Paul draft the projects of the CU/NWP with the intention of getting publicity and provoking discussion. She was good at elevating money and also raising eyebrows, however the membership of her organizations was constantly a small fraction of NAWSA’s membership. The nationwide remained the significant woman suffrage association throughout the country.Catt frequently spoke the end in the press against the job-related of the NWP. She believed that the single-minded focus on the passage of a commonwealth amendment to be foolish. NAWSA concentrated on win the poll on the state level, especially in new York. Without increased support in the states, she believed, the constitutional amendment was doomed to fail. Catt additionally hated the spectacle that the NWP tactics. Quite than depicting women as respectable, ethical citizens worthy of the vote, Catt believed that Alice Paul do suffragists watch ridiculous.For her part, Paul made that a policy never to speak versus Catt publicly, but privately she encouraged women come quit NAWSA and support the NWP exclusively. Catt and Paul met periodically v the intention of working out your differences, however to no avail. During one meeting, having failed to settle their latest disagreement, Catt angrily was standing up and stormed out, leave Paul with a parting shot:“I will certainly fight you to the last ditch!

Catherine Flanagan (Left) and also Gertrude Crocker (Right) of the NWP being put under arrest as they picket with banners before the White House east Gate. Arresting policewoman center, group behind. Banner reads: \"How long Must women Wait for Liberty?\"

National Woman\"s Party Records, Library that Congress

The NWP’s strategy of sewage confrontation maintained the concern of woman suffrage in the news and also in publicly conversation even as America’s enntrance gate into world War I endangered to derail the movement. Paul continued with increasingly more provocative campaigns, consisting of the arrest and also imprisonment of hundreds of NWP protesters. Catt announced that NAWSA supported the war effort, winning influence with politicians and the President with her statements of loyalty.As Catt steered NAWSA’s efforts more intently in the direction of the i of the commonwealth amendment, she became the more visible leader that the suffragists. As soon as the 19th revised was validated in august 1920, Catt was attributed in the push with act the slow, steady, respectable work that winner the victory. Political leaders who supported woman suffrage, specifically those who adjusted their position over time, were often fast to point out that those troublemakers of the NWP had actually no impact on your decision.Carrie Chapman Catt supervised the change of NAWSA right into a brand-new organization, the organization of females Voters. Alice Paul continued her civic engagement and activism together well. The nationwide Woman\"s Party introduced and also lobbied for the Equal legal rights Amendment (which Catt opposed.) Carrie Catt and also her longtime companion Mary Garrett Hay developed a memorial in the landscape of their farm, Juniper Ledge, to the females leaders the the suffrage movement. Twelve plaques fastened to trees roughly the heritage honored women choose Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Anna Howard Shaw. There was no plaque for Alice Paul.

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Sources because that this short article include: Susan Ware, Why they Marched: Untold story of the females Who dealt with for the right To Vote (2019) and J. D. Zahniser & Amelia R. Fry, Alice Paul: Claiming power (2014).