explain the basic chemical structure of nucleic acids, identify monomers and polymers, and list the attributes of RNA and DNA define the framework and function of ATP in the cell

Nucleic acids save on computer the same elements as proteins: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; add to phosphorous (C, H, O, N, and P). Nucleic acids are very big macromolecules written of repeated units the the same structure blocks, nucleotides, comparable to a pearl necklace made of countless pearls. Us can additionally define main point acids together polymers assembled from countless smaller covalently external inspection monomers.

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Nucleic acids room the molecules that role in encoding, transmitting and also expressing genetic information in our cells.

All nucleotides are made of 3 subunits: one or an ext phosphate groups, a pentose street (five-carbon sugar, either deoxyribose or ribose), and also a nitrogen-containing base (either adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil). See number (PageIndex1) below.


Figure (PageIndex1) A nucleic acid quick fragment make of 5 nucleotides is shown on the right; one nucleotide is enclosed in a red rectangle. Every nucleotide is made of one of the 5 nitrogenous bases, a pentose street (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has ribose for a pentose, conversely, deoxyribonucleic mountain (DNA) has deoxyribose. The 5 nitrogenous bases space classified as pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil), which have a ring structure; and also purines (adenine and guanine), which have actually a double-ring structure. RNA molecule may have up come few-thousand nucleotides and also are singlestranded, vice versa, DNA molecules have actually billions the nucleotides arranged in 2 strings of nucleotides forming a helix. DNA, RNA, and also proteins are concerned each other as displayed in table (PageIndex1) below.

Table (PageIndex1) DNA, RNA, and proteins relationship
DNA ( ightarrow) is supplied to synthesize RNA ( ightarrow) which is offered to synthesize Proteins
Polymers that nucleotides Polymer that nucleotides Polymer the amino acids
Encodes amino acid sequence of proteins Transmits and expresses info in DNA Perform most cellular functions


Figure (PageIndex2) DNA and also RNA share 3 nucleotides in your composition (cytosine, guanine, and also adenine), and also they differ in uracil (found just in RNA) and also thymine (found just in DNA). RNA is single strand, vice versa, DNA in double strand

Table (PageIndex2) species of nucleic acids and also their features type of nucleic Acid duty
DNA Encodes and transmits inherited hereditary information native one generation come the next
RNA Translates the information encoded in DNA for the production of proteins and assist in their synthesis

Concepts, terms, and facts check

Study Questions create your answer in a sentence form (do no answer using loose words)

1. What is a main point acid?2. What aspects are main point acids make of?3. What are the monomers that make the structure blocks of main point acids?4. What space the three materials of a nucleotide?5. List the types of nucleic acids explained in the module6. What room the attributes of main point acid listed in the module?

Nucleotides space the monomers that make up the nucleic mountain polymers. Adenosine tree phosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide the has critical function through itself. ATP is a direct and also rapid energy resource for many cellular activities. ATP is composed of a solitary adenosine (the nitrogen-containing basic adenine and the street ribose), linked to three phosphate ions.


Figure (PageIndex3) The two covalent bond on the best of the molecule (shown in red) room high power bonds. As soon as an enzymatic reaction breaks them down, a large amount of energy is released. This power is ready to be offered by a cell. ~ above the other hand, as soon as molecules (like the ones we incorporate in ours diet) are damaged down by enzymes they relax energy. This power can be temporarily held on ATP molecules in the covalent bonds created between complimentary phosphate groups and also adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

ATP is regularly described as the major energy money for the cell. ATP serves as an interinter-base.netiary molecule in between chemical reaction that release energy, and chemical reaction that require energy. It does therefore by temporary “holding” the power released by one enzymatic reaction in the covalent binding that attach phosphates to ADP (the red ones in the number above). Then, the molecule of ATP can offer up that power where the is needed.

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The chemistry formula summarizing this process, is

Since the reaction can go in one of two people direction (from ADP come ATP, or indigenous ATP come ADP), this is an example of a reversible reaction, and also it is stood for with an double arrow pointing in both directions.