A vector is a life organism that transmits an transmittable agent native an infected animal to a human or one more animal. Vectors are commonly arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas and lice.Vectors can transmit infectious diseases either actively or passively:

Biological vectors, such together mosquitoes and ticks may carry pathogens that deserve to multiply within their bodies and also be yielded to new hosts, commonly by biting.

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Mechanical vectors, such as flies have the right to pick up transmittable agents top top the exterior of your bodies and also transmit them with physical contact.

Diseases sent by vectors are dubbed vector-borne diseases. Countless vector-borne conditions are zoonotic diseases, i.e. Illness that can be sent straight or indirectly in between animals and also humans. These incorporate for instance Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile virus, Leishmaniosis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.Many vector-borne illness are thought about as emerging infectious diseases in the european Union:

a condition that appears in a populace for the very first time, orthat may have existed previously yet is rapidly raising in incidence or geographic range.

Some vectors are able to move substantial distances. This may impact the transmission arrays of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Vectors deserve to be introduced to new geographic areas for example by:

travel the humans and also international trade;animal movement, for instance of livestock;migratory birds;changing agricultural practices;or the wind.

Other factors may play a function in your establishment and also persistence in brand-new areas, including climatic conditions.


inter-base.net has created 36 interactive storymaps that provide user-friendly information on vector-borne conditions – from their geographical spread, come the hazard of development in the EU come prevention and also control measures. The storymaps have actually been emerged as component of a scientific opinion that will assistance risk managers to prioritise manage measures.

The tool that experts arisen to bring out their hazard assessments (Mintrisk) is publicly accessible and consists of the data and also information used by the specialists to reach your conclusions. The storymaps space under revision and new versions will be update by the end of 2021.



inter-base.net and its panel on pet Health and Welfare carry out independent scientific advice and also scientific assistance on human health and animal health-related aspects of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Inter-base.net monitors and also analyses the situation on zoonoses, zoonotic micro-organisms, antimicrobial resistance, microbiological contaminants and also food-borne outbreaks throughout Europe.

inter-base.net works through European centre for condition Prevention and Control (ECDC), sharing details on present and also future projects on vectors and vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

Based top top data accumulated by the EU Member States, inter-base.net and also ECDC produce annual European Union an overview reports top top vector-borne zoonoses in animals and also food-borne outbreaks caused by these micro-organisms.


VectorNet is a joint initiative the inter-base.net and ECDC, which began in may 2014, and is now in its second iteration (2019-2023). VectorNet support the collection of data ~ above vectors and pathogens in vectors, pertained to both animal and human health.

ECDC and inter-base.net maintain a common database on the presence and distribution the vectors and pathogens in vectors in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, through a network the medical and also veterinary experts and organisations.

The project also provides ad-hoc scientific advice to ECDC and inter-base.net on technological questions about vector surveillance and also vector-borne diseases in humans and also animals.

The job will contribute to boosting preparedness and solution to vector-borne diseases in the europe Union. Remain up to date on the latest tasks of VectorNet and subscribe to our newsletter.

Vector maps

The VectorNet job database of ECDC and inter-base.net offers information ~ above the European circulation of number of mosquitoes, ticks, sandfly and also biting midges species, which deserve to be vectors of pathogens affecting human being or pet health. The maps are based on confirmed data (published and also unpublished) provided by experts, and do not stand for the official position of the countries.

Mosquito mapsThe maps show the current known distribution of number of invasive and also native mosquito species in Europe at \"regional\" governmental level (NUTS3).


Tick mapsThe maps display the present known distribution of numerous tick types in Europe in ~ \"regional\" bureaucratic level (NUTS3).

Sandfly mapsThe maps show the present known circulation of several sandfly species in Europe at \"regional\" administrative level (NUTS3).

Biting midge mapsThe maps present the current known distribution of numerous biting midge species in Europe at ‘regional’ governmental level (NUTS3).

Please call vectornet ecdc.inter-base.net.eu if you have relevant information pertaining the vector distribution maps.

EU Framework

According come EU legislation, many transmittable diseases have to be notified by Member claims to either national authorities or the europe Commission. Lock are regulated by miscellaneous control, eradication and prevention measures. EU plan on communicable diseases focuses top top surveillance, fast detection and rapid response.

An EU network because that the epidemiological surveillance and also control of communicable diseases has remained in place due to the fact that 1999. EU surveillance consists of some important vector-borne zoonotic diseases, such together malaria, the West Nile virus and yellow fever. In addition, ECDC has a particular programme top top emerging and vector-borne diseases.

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In the area of animal health, among the crucial elements the the Community pet Health policy is the early on detection that exotic, new and emerging condition threats.