Learning Objectives

Understand how charts can be provided to current information. Explain the importance of making use of graphs when speaking. Define four common varieties of representations. Differentiate in between objects and also models. Identify why speakers might use civilization as presentation aids.

As we witnessed in the instance of the orientation presentation in ~ the organic farming conference, utilizing presentation aids have the right to be risky. However, v a small forethought and adequate practice, friend can select presentation aids that boost your post and boost your skilled appearance in prior of one audience.

You are watching: Which of the following is an example of a two-dimensional presentation aid?

One rule to store in mental is come use just as many presentation aids as essential to existing your article or to fulfill your great assignment. Return the maxim “less is more” might sound like a cliché, it yes, really does use in this instance. The number and the technical sophistication of your presentation aids must never overshadow your speech.

Another important factor to consider is technology. Keep your presentation aids within the borders of the working an innovation available come you. Even if it is or no your classroom an innovation works ~ above the job of her speech, you will still have to present. What will certainly you do if the computer file containing your slides is corrupted? What will certainly you do if the easel is broken? What if you had counted on stacking your visuals on a table the disappears right once you require it? You must be prepared to adapt to one uncomfortable and also scary situation. This is why we advice students to go to the class at least fifteen minute ahead the time to test the equipment and also ascertain the condition of things they’re planning come use. As the speaker, you space responsible because that arranging the points you should make her presentation aids work as intended. Carry a role of duct tape so friend can display your poster also if the easel is gone. Discover an extra chair if her table has actually disappeared. Check the computer system setup, and also have an alternative plan all set in instance there is some glitch that stays clear of your computer-based presentation aids from being usable. The an ext sophisticated the equipment is, the more you must be prepared with an alternative, also in a “smart classroom.”

More important than the technique of shipment is the audience’s capability to see and also understand the presentation aid. That must supply clear information, and it need to not distract from the message. Avoid overly elaborate presentation aids since they have the right to distract the audience’s fist from her message. Instead, simplify as lot as possible, emphasizing the info you want your audience to understand.

Another point to psychic is the presentation aids perform not “speak because that themselves.” when you display screen a visual aid, girlfriend should define what it shows, pointing out and naming the most essential features. If you usage an audio assist such together a music excerpt, you need to tell your audience what to listen for. Similarly, if you use a video clip clip, the is as much as you as the speaker to allude out the features in the video that support the allude you space making.

Although there space many helpful presentation tools, you have to not effort to usage every one of these tools in a solitary speech. Your presentation aids must be designed to look like a meaningful set. Because that instance, if you decision to use three slides and a poster, all 4 of these visual aids should manipulate the same kind font and straightforward design.

Now that we’ve explored some simple hints for preparing visual aids, stop look in ~ the most common types of visual aids: charts, graphs, representations, objects/models, and also people.


A chartA graphical depiction of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an bespeak process. Is commonly characterized as a graphical depiction of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an notified process. Even if it is you develop your charts or perform research to discover charts that already exist, it is crucial for them come exactly complement the certain purpose in her speech. Number 15.6 "Acupuncture Charts" reflects two charts concerned acupuncture. Back both charts room good, they space not equal. One chart might be helpful in a speech around the background and breakthrough of acupuncture, if the other chart would be more useful for mirroring the places of meridians, or the lines follow me which energy is believed to flow, and also the acupuncture points.

In the remainder of this section, we’re walking to discover three common species of charts: statistical charts, sequence-of-steps chart, and also decision trees.

Figure 15.7 Birth load Chi-Square


Source: Woods, S. E., & Raju, U. (2001). Maternal smoking and the danger of congenital birth defects: A cohort study. Journal the the American plank of household Practitioners, 14, 330–334.

For many audiences, statistical presentations must be retained as basic as possible, and they must be explained. The statistical chart presented in figure 15.7 "Birth load Chi-Square" is indigenous a study analyzing the results of maternal smoking on a variety of congenital birth defects. Uneven you are familiar with statistics, this chart may be very confusing. Once visually displaying info from a quantitative study, you should make certain that you recognize the material and can successfully and simply explain how one should analyze the data. If you are unsure about the data yourself, climate you should more than likely not use this kind of information. This is surely an instance of a visual aid that, although it delivers a restricted kind the information, does not speak for itself.

Figure 15.8 actions in cabinet Reproduction


Source: images courtesy the LadyofHats, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MITOSIS_cells_secuence.svg, and the nationwide Institutes of Health, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MajorEventsInMitosis.jpg.

Charts are additionally useful once you are trying to describe a procedure that entails several steps. The two visual aids in number 15.8 "Steps in cabinet Reproduction" both depict the procedure of cell division called mitosis utilizing a sequence-of-steps chart, yet they each deliver different information. The very first chart lacks brand to show the various phases of cell division. Back the very first chart might have an ext color and also look more polished, the missing information might confuse your audience. In the second chart, each phase is labeled through a quick explanation of what is happening, i m sorry can help your audience recognize the process.

Figure 15.9 to Play or no to Play


Decision tree are advantageous for mirroring the relationships between ideas. The instance in figure 15.9 "To beat or no to Play" shows exactly how a decision tree might be used to identify the proper weather for play baseball. Similar to the other varieties of charts, you want to be sure that the details in the graph is relevant to the objective of your speech and also that every question and also decision is clearly labeled.


Strictly speaking, a graph may be considered a kind of chart, however graphs space so widely offered that we will discuss them separately. A graphA photographic representation the the relationships of quantitative data making use of dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and also the like. Is a pictorial representation the the relationship of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like. Graphs display the variation in one change in comparison with that of one or much more other variables. Whereby a statistical chart might report the mean eras of individuals entering college, a graph would display how the typical age alters over time. A statistical chart may report the amount of computer systems sold in the united States, while a graph will show the malfunction of those computers by operating systems such as Windows, Macintosh, and also Linux. Public speakers can display graphs utilizing a range of different formats. Several of those layouts are specialized for various skilled fields. Very complex graphs regularly contain too much details that is not concerned the function of a student’s speech. If the graph is cluttered, it becomes complicated to comprehend.

In this section, we’re going to analysis the common graphs speakers make use of in their speeches: line graphs, bar graphs, and pie graphs.

Figure 15.10 Enron’s stock Price


Source: image courtesy that Nehrams 2020, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EnronStockPriceAug00Jan02.jpg.

A line graph is design to show trends end time. In figure 15.10 "Enron’s share Price", we see a line graph depicting the autumn of Enron’s stock price from respectable 2000 come January 2002. Notification that although it has some steep rises, the line has an overall downward trend clearly depicting the plummeting of Enron’s share price. Showing such a heat graph help the audience see the relationships in between the numbers, and audiences deserve to understand the details by see the graph much much more easily 보다 they might if the speaker just read the numbers aloud.

Bar Graph

Bar graphs are helpful for reflecting the differences in between quantities. They have the right to be used for populace demographics, fuel costs, math ability in various grades, and also many other kinds of data.

The graph in number 15.11 "Natural fatality vs. Homicide" is fine designed. It is fairly simple and also is very closely labeled, make it simple for you to overview your audience v the amounts of each kind of death. The bar graph is designed to show the difference between natural deaths and also homicides throughout various age groups. Once you look at the data, the very first grouping plainly shows that eighteen- come twenty-four-year-olds are an ext likely come die because of a homicide than any of the other age groups.

Figure 15.11 Natural death vs. Homicide


Source: photo courtesy of Centers for an illness Control and Prevention, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homicide_suicide_USA.gif.

The graph in number 15.12 "Distribution the Income and Wealth in the united States" is a complex bar graph illustrating the disparity between the haves and also the have nots within the united States. On the left hand side of the graph you deserve to see that the peak 20% of human being within the United claims account for 84.7% of all of the wealth and also 50.1% of every one of the income. ~ above the other hand, those in the bottom 40% account for just 0.2% of the wealth and 12.1% that the really income.

While the graph is really well designed, it gift a great deal of information. In a created publication, readers will have actually time to sit and also analyze the graph, but in a speak situation, audience members require to have the ability to understand the information in a graph very quickly. For the reason, this graph is most likely not as reliable for speeches together the one in number 15.11 "Natural fatality vs. Homicide".

Pie Graph

Pie graphs must be streamlined as much as possible without eliminating vital information. Just like other graphs, the sections of the pie must be plotted proportionally. In the pie graph presented in number 15.13 "Causes of Concussions in Children", we view a clear and also proportional graph that has actually been color-coded. Color-coding is helpful when it’s daunting to to the right the explanations in the actual sections of the graph; in that case, you need to include a legend, or key, to indicate what the colour in the graph mean. In this graph, audience members deserve to see really quickly that falls are the primary reason children receive concussions.

Source: photo courtesy the Brutannica, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_population_pie_chart.JPG.

The pie graph in number 15.14 "World Populations" is jumbled, illegible, confusing, and also overwhelming in every way. The usage of color coding doesn’t help. Overall, this graph simply has too much information and also is more likely to confuse an audience than assist them understand something.


In the world of presentation aids, representationsA presentation help designed to represent a real procedure or object. Is the word offered to share a team of aids draft to stand for real procedures or objects. Often, speakers desire to visually show something the they cannot physically lug with them to the speech. Perhaps you’re providing a speech on the person brain, and you just don’t have accessibility to a cadaver’s brain. Instead of bringing in a real brain, you can use a snapshot of a brain or picture that represents the human brain. In this ar we’re walking to check out four common representations: diagrams, maps, photographs, and video or recordings.


DiagramsDrawing that outlines and also explains the parts of one object, process, or phenomenon the cannot be readily seen. Are drawings or sketches that outline and explain the components of one object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen. Prefer graphs, diagrams can be considered a kind of chart, as in the case of company charts and procedure flow charts.

When you usage a diagram, be certain to describe each component of the phenomenon, paying distinct attention to facets that are complicated or at risk to misunderstanding. In the example shown in number 15.15 "The human being Eye", you might wish to highlight that the light stimulus is reversed as soon as it is processed v the mind or the the optic nerve is not a single stalk as many people think.


Maps space extremely advantageous if the information is clear and limited. There space all kinds of maps, consisting of population, weather, ocean current, political, and also economic maps, but you should have the ability to find the best kind because that the function of her speech. Choose a map that emphasizes the information you should deliver.

The map shown in number 15.16 "African Map v Nigerian Emphasis" is simple, showing clearly the geographic location of Nigeria. This deserve to be extremely valuable for part audiences who could not have the ability to name and also locate countries on the continent of Africa.

Figure 15.17 "Rhode Island Map" is a map of the state of Rhode Island, and it emphasizes the facility configuration the islands and waterways that characterize this state’s geography. Although the map does not list the name of the islands, it is useful in orienting the audience to the direction and distance of the archipelago to other geographical features, such as the city the Providence and also the Atlantic Ocean.

Source: image courtesy of Mathieu Dréo, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tall_ship_rigging_in_amsterdam_close.jpg.

Sometimes a picture or a illustration is the best means to present an unfamiliar but important detail. Number 15.18 "Wigwam Picture" is a picture of a wigwam, a wigwam was a life dwelling used by native Americans in the phibìc East. In this picture you deserve to see the curved birchbark exterior, which makes this dwelling ideal for a variety of weather conditions. The picture of the tall ship in number 15.19 "Ship’s Rigging" emphasizes the slim amount and complexity the the ship’s rigging.

Video or Audio Recordings

Another an extremely useful type of presentation aid is a video clip or audio recording. Whether it is a short video clip from a website such together YouTube or Vimeo, a segment native a song, or a piece of a podcast, a well-chosen video or audio recording might be a an excellent choice to enhance your speech.

Imagine, because that example, the you’re giving a decided on exactly how “Lap-Band” surgeries help people shed weight. One of the part of your speech might explain just how the Lap-Band works, therefore you might easily show the following forty-three-second video to demonstrate the medical part of the surgical treatment (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPuThbFMxGg). Maybe you desire to encompass a record of a real patient explaining why the or she decided to gain the Lap-Band. Then you might include a podcast choose this one from the medical University of south Carolina (http://medicaluniversc.http.internapcdn.net/medicaluniversc_vitalstream_com/podcasts/2007/1_Treado_June_22_final.mp3).

There is one significant caveat to using audio and video clips throughout a speech: perform not forget the they are supposed to it is in aids to your speech, no the speech itself! In addition, be sure to stop these 3 mistakes the speakers regularly make as soon as using audio and video clips:

Avoid picking clips that space too long for the in its entirety length of the speech. If girlfriend are offering a five-minute speech, then any type of audio or video clip friend use need to be under thirty seconds in length. Don’t fail to practice with the audio or video clip equipment before speaking. If you room unfamiliar with the equipment, you’ll look foolish make the efforts to figure out just how it works. This fiddling roughly will not only take her audience out of your speech but also have a negative impact on her credibility. Don’t fail to cue the clip to the suitable place front to start your speech. Us cannot tell you the variety of times we’ve seen students spend an useful speech time make the efforts to discover a clip top top YouTube or a DVD. You must make sure your clip is all set to go prior to you start speaking.

Objects or Models

Objects and models space another type of presentation help that have the right to be an extremely helpful in getting your audience to know your message. ObjectsA tangible, physics item a speaker can hold up and also talk about during a speech. Refer to anything you can hold up and talk about during her speech. If you talking around the prestige of not utilizing plastic water bottles, you can hold increase a plastic water bottle and a stainless stole water bottle as examples. If she talking about the percussion family of music instruments and also you very own (and deserve to play) several different percussion instruments, girlfriend can present your audience in human being what castle look like and also how they sound.

ModelsA three-dimensional re-creation that a physics object., top top the other hand, space re-creations of physical objects the you cannot have readily obtainable with you throughout a speech. If you’re providing a speech on love murmurs, you may be able to show exactly how heart murmurs job-related by holding up a version of the human being heart.

People and Animals

The next category of presentation aids are people and animals. We can regularly use oneself or other people to adequately show an idea during our speeches.

Animals as Presentation Aids

When giving a speech on a object relating come animals, the is frequently tempting to bring an animal to offer as her presentation aid. While this have the right to sometimes add a an extremely engaging measurement to the speech, the carries some serious threats that you must consider.

The first risk is that pet behavior has tendency to it is in unpredictable. You might think this won’t be a difficulty if her presentation help animal is a tiny enough to be preserved confined throughout her speech—for example, a goldfish in a bowl or a lizard or bird in a cage. However, even caged pets can be very distracting to her audience if they run about, chirp, or exhibit various other agitated behavior. The possibilities are great that an pet will reaction to the stress of one unfamiliar case by displaying habits that go not contribute positively to your speech.

The second risk is that some audience members may respond negatively to a live animal. In addition to common fears and aversions to pets like snakes, spiders, and also mice, many civilization have allergy to various animals.

The third risk is the some places may have actually regulations about bringing animals onto the premises. If animals are allowed, the human bringing the animal may be forced to carry a vet certificate or may be legally responsible for any kind of damage brought about by the animal.

For these reasons, before you decide to use an animal as a presentation aid, ask yourself if you might make your suggest equally well v a picture, model, diagram, or other representation that the animal in question.

Speaker together Presentation Aid

Speakers can regularly use their very own bodies to demonstrate facets of a speech. If her speech is about ballroom dancing or ballet, you might use her body to demonstrate the basic moves in the cha-cha or the five an easy ballet positions.

Other world as Presentation Aids

In many speeches, it have the right to be cumbersome and distracting for the speaker to usage her or his very own body to show a point. In together cases, the finest solution is to ask someone rather to offer as your presentation aid.

You have to arrange front of time for a person (or persons) to it is in an reliable aid—do no assume that an audience member will volunteer on the spot. If you setup to demonstrate how to immobilize a broken bone, her volunteer must know ahead the time that you will certainly touch that or her as lot as crucial to splint their foot. Friend must also make particular that they will certainly arrive pull on presentably and also that they will not draw attention away from your message through your appearance or behavior.

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The transaction in between you and your person presentation aid must be appropriate, especially if you room going to show something prefer a dance step. Use your absolute finest judgment about behavior, and make certain that your human being presentation assist understands this dimension of the task.

Key Takeaways

Various species of charts can aid audience knowledge of a speaker’s message. Statistical charts assist audiences see and also interpret number information. Sequence-of-steps charts show how a procedure occurs. Decision trees assist audience members see just how a particular decision can be made in a logical fashion. Heat graphs, bar graphs, and also pie graphs are generally used by speakers to help present numerical information. The details presented top top a graph must be clean and also easily understandable from a distance. Representations are presentation aids draft to stand for a real procedure or object. Typically used depictions in windy speaking include diagrams, maps, photographs, and video or audio recordings. Objects are physical items that have the right to be held up and also used throughout a speech. Models, ~ above the other hand, refer to tangible items that have the right to be held during a speech, however are no the actual object but rather a facsimile the it. Speakers frequently will use their very own bodies or the bodies of other human being to assist them highlight a part of a speech. Once using one more person, it is really important to coach that human prior to the speech to ensure that he or she will certainly not upstage the speaker. Using animals as presentation aids is typically not recommended.


uncover a speech on YouTube and see what types of presentation aids the speak uses. Walk the speak select appropriate aids? How can you have actually made lock better? were there any lacking presentation aids that should have remained in the speech? develop a graph representing the speech creation process. Try using one of two people a sequence-of-steps graph or a decision tree. Think about your following speech. What presentation aids deserve to you usage in her speech to improve your audience’s understanding?