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Protein synthesis n., plural: protein syntheses Definition: the creation of protein.


Proteins are made up of amino acids that are arrainged in orderly fashion. Discover how the cell organizes protein synthesis with the help of the RNAs. You’re more than welcome to join us in our Forum discussion: What does mRNA do in protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis definition


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Protein synthesis – schematic diagram


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RNA codon amino acid chart.

In biology, a codon refers to the trinucleotides that specify for a particular amino acid. For example, Guanine-Cytosine-Cytosine (GCC) codes for the amino acid alanine. The Guanine-Uracil-Uracil (GUU) codes for valine. Uracil-Adenine-Adenine (UAA) is a stop codon. The codon of the mRNA complements the trinucleotide (called anticodon) in the tRNA.

What is the Genetic Code? “The genetic code is the system that combines different components of protein synthesis, like DNA, mRNA, tRNA…” More FAQ answered by our biology expert in the Forum: What does mRNA do in protein synthesis? Come join us now!

mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA

mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are the three major types of RNA involved in protein synthesis. The mRNA (or messenger RNA) carries the code for making a protein. In eukaryotes, it is formed inside the nucleus and consists of a 5′ cap, 5’UTR region, coding region, 3’UTR region, and poly(A) tail. The copy of a DNA segment for gene expression is located in its coding region. It begins with a start codon at 5’end and a stop codon at the 3′ end. tRNA (or transfer RNA), as the name implies, transfers the specific amino acid to the ribosome to be added to the growing chain of amino acid. It consists of two major sites: (1) anticodon arm and (2) acceptor stem. The anticodon arm contains the anticodon that complementary base pairs with the codon of the mRNA. The acceptor stem is the site where a specific amino acid is attached (in this case, the tRNA with amino acid is called aminoacyl-tRNA). A peptidyl-tRNA is the tRNA that holds the growing polypeptide chain. Unlike the first two, rRNA (or ribosomal RNA) does not carry genetic information. Rather, it serves as one of the components of the ribosome. The ribosome is a cytoplasmic structure in cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are known for serving as a site of protein synthesis. The ribosomes can be used to determine a prokaryote from a eukaryote. Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes whereas eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes. Both types, though, are each made up of two subunits of differing sizes. The larger subunit serves as the ribozyme that catalyzes the peptide bond formation between amino acids. rRNA has three binding sites: A, P, and E sites. The A (aminoacyl) site is where aminoacyl-tRNA docks. The P (peptidyl) site is where peptidyl-tRNA binds. The E (exit) site is where the tRNA leaves the ribosome.