Evan Tarver has 6+ years of suffer in financial analysis and 5+ years as an author, editor, and also copywriter.

You are watching: Which of the following represent the primary activities of a firm?



Amy Drury is an invest banking instructor, financial writer, and also a teacher of expert qualifications.

What Is a worth Chain?

A worth chain is a mix of the equipment a company or organization offers to make money. That is, a worth chain is consisted of of miscellaneous subsystems that are supplied to create assets or services. This contains the procedure from start to finish.

Michael Porter's worth Chain

Given the importance of the value chain, Michael Porter developed a strategic administration tool for examining a company’s worth chain. Porter, well-known for Porter’s 5 forces, laid the end his technique of examining value chain in his 1985 book Competitive Advantage. Porter seek to specify a this firm competitive advantage noting the it stems from a company’s processes, such as marketing and supporting activities.

Porter breaks value chain analysis into 5 primary activities. Then, he further breaks those down right into four activities that assist support main activities. The primary activities of Michael Porter"s worth chain space inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service. The goal of the 5 sets of tasks is to produce value the exceeds the cost of conducting that activity, therefore generating a greater profit. Below are the five key primary activities.

Porter’s worth Chain Primary activities

Inbound Logistics

Inbound logistics include the receiving, warehousing, and inventory regulate of a company"s life materials. This also covers all relationships through suppliers. Because that example, because that an e-commerce company, inbound logistics would certainly be the receiving and storing of assets from a manufacturer that it plans come sell.


Operations encompass procedures because that converting raw materials into a finished product or service. This includes an altering all entry to all set them as outputs. In the over e-commerce example, this would certainly include adding labels or branding or packaging several assets as a bundle to add value to the product.

Outbound Logistics

All activities to distribute a final product come a consumer are taken into consideration outbound logistics. This contains delivery that the product but likewise includes storage and distribution systems and can be outside or internal. Because that the e-commerce company above, this contains storing assets for shipping and also the really shipping of stated products.

Marketing and also Sales

Strategies to improve visibility and target appropriate customers—such as advertising, promotion, and pricing—are consisted of in marketing and sales. Basically, these is all tasks that help convince a customer to acquisition a this firm product or service. Proceeding with the above example, an e-commerce agency may run ads on Instagram or build an e-mail list for email marketing.


This includes activities to keep products and enhance customer experience—customer service, maintenance, repair, refund, and also exchange. Because that an e-commerce company, this can include repair or replacements, or a warranty.

Porter's value Chain an additional Activities

Now, suppliers can additional improve the primary activities of their value chain with an additional activities. Value chain support activities do simply that, they support the primary activities. The support, or secondary, activity generally plays a role in each major activity. Such together human source management, which can play a role in operations, marketing, and also sales. Right here are the four supporting activities.


Procurement is the salvation of inputs, or resources, for the firm. This is just how a company obtains life materials, thus, it contains finding and also negotiating prices v suppliers and also vendors. This relates greatly to the inbound logistics primary activity, wherein an e-commerce agency would look to procure products or items for resale.

Human resource Management

Hiring and retaining employees who will fulfill business strategy, as well as help design, market, and sell the product. Overall, managing employees is useful for all primary activities, where employees and effective hiring are required for marketing, logistics, and operations, among others.


Infrastructure consists a company"s support systems and also the features that allow it to maintain operations. This consists of all accounting, legal, and also administrative functions. A solid infrastructure is crucial for all main functions.

technical Development

Technological breakthrough is used during research and development and can include designing and also developing production techniques and automating processes. This consists of equipment, hardware, software, procedures, and also technical knowledge. Overall, a organization working come reduce technology costs, together as moving from a hardware storage device to the cloud, is technological development.

The Bottom heat

The primary tasks within Michael Porter"s worth chain are offered to carry out a firm with a competitive benefit in any kind of one that the five tasks so it has an benefit in the market in which that operates. In general, the evaluation was intended for providers that produce goods. But virtually any firm can use the worth chain analysis laid out by Porter also if lock don’t have all the components.

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