Which that the following statements around species, as identified by the biological types concept, is (are) correct?Biological types are defined by reproductive isolation. Biological types are the models used for group extinct forms of life.
III. The biological species is the biggest unit of population in which effective interbreeding is possible.
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There is still some controversy among biologists about whether Neanderthals need to be inserted within the same types as modern humans or right into a separate varieties of their own. Most DNA sequence data analyzed so far indicate the there was probably small or no gene flow between Neanderthals and also Homo sapiens. Which varieties concept is many applicable in this example?A) phylogenetic B) environmental C) morphological D) organic
You are challenged with a box of kept grasshoppers of various types that are new to science and also have not been described. Her assignment is to different them right into species. Over there is no accompanying information regarding where or when they were collected. Which species concept will you need to use?A) organic B) phylogenetic C) eco-friendly D) morphological
Two types of frogs belonging to the very same genus periodically mate, yet the offspring fail to develop and hatch. What is the device for maintaining the two frog types separate?A) the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability B) the postzygotic obstacle called hybrid breakdown C) the prezygotic obstacle called hybrid sterility D) the prezygotic obstacle gametic isolation
Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) have the right to interbreed to create viable, fertile offspring. These varieties shared a typical ancestor newly (in geologic time) and have a high degree of genetic similarity, although your anatomies vary widely. Judging from this evidence, i beg your pardon two types concepts room most likely to ar dogs and wolves together right into a solitary species?A) ecological and also phylogenetic B) morphological and also phylogenetic C) biological and also morphological D) biological and also phylogenetic
Which that the adhering to statements around speciation is correct?A) The goal of natural an option is speciation. B) Natural an option chooses the reproductive barriers for populations. C) It constantly takes numerous years because that speciation to occur. D) Speciation is a basis for knowledge macroevolution.
Which of the complying with criteria provided in category is the most easily evaluated by the observer?A) morphology B) biochemistry C) physiology D) DNA sequence
A varieties is a member the a group referred to as a population,A) whose members have the capability to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring. B) who members have the capability to interbreed but do not produce viable offspring. C) which room reproductively incompatible. D) which are unique biological species that live in the same area.
Which the the adhering to reproductive varieties of isolation illustrates postzygotic barriers?A) habitat isolation B) mechanically isolation C) temporal isolation D) hybrid breakdown
The phylogenetic types concept defines a types asA) the smallest team of individuals that re-superstructure a common ancestor. B) an ecological niche, interacting with living and nonliving parts of their environment. C) a body shape and other structure features. D) a reproductive isolation.
Which species concept wake up in the visibility of gene flow?A) morphological B) biological C) eco-friendly D) phylogenetic
Rocky hill juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and also one-seeded juniper (J. Monosperma) have overlapping ranges. If pollen grains (which contain sperm cells) native one types are can not to germinate and make pollen pipe on female ovules (which save on computer egg cells) the the other species, then which of this terms room applicable?sympatric species prezygotic isolation postzygotic isolation allopatric species habitat isolation lessened hybrid fertility A) 1 and 2 B) 2 and 4 C) 1, 3, and also 6 D) 2, 4, and also 5 E) 1, 2, 5, and 6
In a theoretical situation, a certain types of flea feeds just on pronghorn antelopes. In rangelands the the western unified States, pronghorns and also cattle often associate through one another. If several of these fleas construct a solid preference for cattle blood and also mate only with other fleas the prefer cattle blood, then with time which of these must occur, if the host mammal have the right to be thought about as the fleas\" habitat?reproductive isolation sympatric speciation habitat isolation prezygotic barriers A) 1 only B) 2 and also 3 C) 1, 2, and 3 D) 2, 3, and 4 E) 1 v 4
Among well-known plant species, which of these are the two many commonly occurring phenomena that have led to the beginning of brand-new species?allopatric speciation sympatric speciation sexual selection polyploidy A) 1 and 3 B) 1 and also 4 C) 2 and also 3 D) 2 and 4
The origin of a brand-new plant species by hybridization, coupled with crashes during cell division, is an example ofA) allopatric speciation. B) sympatric speciation. C) autopolyploidy. D) habitat selection.
The most most likely explanation because that the high rate of sympatric speciation that supposedly existed among the cichlids that Lake Victoria in the previous isA) sex-related selection. B) habitat differentiation. C) polyploidy. D) pollution. E) arrival of a new predator.
More varieties are uncovered on subdivided areas due toA) geographical isolation. B) lack of geographical isolation. C) gene flow. D) gene drift.
After geographical separation, what procedure would be the critical step prior to reproductive isolation?A) gene pool aberration B) mutation C) natural an option D) genetic drift
How deserve to reproductive barriers form between sympatric populaces while their members remain in contact with them?A) increased gene flow B) enhanced polyploidy C) lessened habitat differentiation D) diminished sexual an option
Which the the adhering to descriptions of polyploidy show speciation?A) one accident during cell division results in an extra collection of chromosomes. B) An separation, personal, instance has an ext than two chromosome sets from a solitary species. C) 2 different varieties interbreed and produce hybrid offspring. D) Allopolyploids mate with each other yet cannot interbreed v parent species.
Which one of the following selections describes an benefit of the biological varieties concept?A) absence of methodology to evaluate fossil reproduction B) walk not apply to organisms that reproduce asexually C) overemphasizes absence of gene circulation D) defines speciation by the development of reproductive isolation
\"Conventional wisdom holds the the breakthrough of separate types happens quickly, most often when populations end up being separated by a geography barrier.\" This is called ________ speciation. \"Even if these groups fulfill again and manage come mate before diverging too far from one another, your offspring will be unfit and die out.\" This is described as hybrid ________.A) sympatric; viability B) allopatric; fertility C) sympatric; break down D) allopatric; failure
Which of this phrases explains a steady hybrid zone?A) problem to gene flow B) lessened hybrid viability C) reduced hybrid fertility D) continued production the hybrid people
Which mechanism would turning back speciation?A) enhanced gene flow B) gene pools the the two types becoming increasingly different C) increased capacity of females come discriminate mates D) decreased production that hybrids
Sexual choice in cichlids occurs by female mate choice and outcomes in reproductive isolation whenA) subpopulations exploit a habitat not provided by the parental population. B) under typical light, each varieties prefers males that their own species. C) all species have extra to adjust of chromosomes. D) under orange light, each varieties prefers orange mates.
A hybrid region is properly defined asA) one area wherein two carefully related species\" varieties overlap. B) an area where mating occurs between members that two carefully related species, developing viable offspring. C) a ar that features a gradual change in species composition wherein two surrounding ecosystems border each other. D) a region that includes the intermediate portion of a cline. E) one area wherein members of two closely related varieties intermingle, yet experience no gene flow.
Which of these should decrease in hybrid zones wherein reinforcement is occurring?A) gene flow between distinct gene pools B) speciation C) the hereditary distinctness of 2 gene pools D) mutation rate E) hybrid sterility
The most most likely explanation because that the recent decrease in cichlid species diversity in Lake Victoria isA) reinforcement. B) fusion. C) stability. D) geographic isolation.
A small hybrid zone off the toad types Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata. What is true that those alleles the are distinctive to the parental species?A) together alleles must be absent. B) your allele frequency have to be almost the exact same as the allele frequencies in toad populations remote from the hybrid zone. C) The alleles\" heterozygosity must be higher among the hybrid toads there. D) your allele frequency ~ above one leaf of the hybrid zone should be approximately equal to their frequency ~ above the opposite edge of the hybrid zone.
Which the the following activities occurs first in stimulate to start speciation?A) solitary gene change B) development of mechanical barrier to reproduction C) postzygotic hybrid sterility in Drosophila D) discontinuity of gene flow in between two populaces
Mechanism that macroevolution works byA) multiple plot of speciation top top an genealogical organism. B) extension of gene flow between populations. C) weakening of obstacles to reproductive isolation. D) showing up in the fossil document of species with similar morphologies.
Rocky mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and one-seeded juniper (J. Monosperma) have actually overlapping ranges. If pollen seed (which contain sperm cells) native one types are unable to germinate and also make pollen tube on mrs ovules (which save egg cells) of the other species, climate which of these terms is applicable?A) behavioral isolation B) mechanical isolation C) hybrid failure D) reduced hybrid viability
SpeciationA) wake up at such a slow-moving pace the no one has ever before observed the development of new species. B) occurs only by the buildup of genetic change over large expanses of time. C) must start with the geographical isolation that a small, frontier population. D) occurs when one varieties splits into two or an ext species.
In i beg your pardon habitat should one uncover snapping shrimp most very closely related to shrimp that live in habitat A4?A) A3 B) A5 C) B4 D) one of two people A3 or A5 E) any species from any type of one the the next A habitats
Which habitats should harbor snapping shrimp species with the greatest level of genetic aberration from every other?A) A1 and A5 B) A1 and also B5 C) B5 and also B1 D) A5 and also B5 E) Both A1/A5 and B1/B5 should have actually the greatest, yet equal quantities of, genetic divergence.
Which aspect is most important for explaining why there are equal number of snapping shrimp species on either side of the isthmus?A) the relative shortness of time they have been be separated B) the depth of the s C) the variety of actual depth habitats between the surface and also the sea floor D) the key of the isthmus above sea level E) the depth the the canal
There are right now two large, long-term bridges that span the Panama Canal. The bridges are about 8 mile apart. If snapping shrimp stop swimming in ~ night and avoid swimming under shadows, then what do these bridges stand for for the snapping shrimp?A) sources of refuge B) geographic obstacles C) sources of a hybrid zone in between the two bridges D) sources for enhanced gene flow
The Panama Canal was completed in 1914, and also its depth is about 50 feet. ~ 1914, snapping shrimp types from i beg your pardon habitats should be most likely to type hybrids together the result of the canal?A) A5 and also B5 B) A3 and also B3 C) A1 and also B1 D) either A1 and A2 or B1 and B2 E) A1-A3 and also B1-B3 have equal likelihoods the harboring snapping shrimp varieties that have the right to hybridize.
The data in these graphs indicate thatA) a hybrid ar was established after the perfect of the bridge. B) there to be no migration between the 2 squirrel populations after the bridge was completed. C) gene flow developed from one kind of squirrel into the gene pool of the other kind of squirrel. D) two-way migrate of 설 설 occurred across the bridge, but without hybridization. E) some northern squirrels migrated south, but no southern squirrels moved north throughout the bridge.
Which species is most closely related to species W?A) V is most carefully related to types W. B) X is most carefully related to types W. C) Y and also Z are equally carefully related come W. D) that is not feasible to say from this tree.
Which varieties is least meant to have a great record of transitional fossils; in various other words, which species\" fossils, if current at all, space expected just in reasonably superficial (that is, shallow) strata?A) V B) W C) X D) Y E) Z
Which of this five species originated earliest and also appeared all of sudden in the fossil record?A) V B) W C) X D) Y E) Z
Which conclusion can be attracted from this evolutionary tree?A) Gradualistic speciation and also speciation including punctuated equilibrium are mutually exclude, concepts. B) Eldredge and Gould would deny the the lineages labeling X, Y, and also Z can represent true species. C) Assuming that the pointer of every line to represent a species, over there are five extant (that is, no extinct) types resulting indigenous the earliest usual ancestor. D) A solitary clade (that is, a team of species that re-superstructure a usual ancestor) deserve to exhibit both gradualism and also punctuated equilibrium.
Which of this five species is the extant (that is, not extinct) varieties that is most closely related to species X, and also why is this so?A) V; common a typical ancestor through X many recently B) W; common a usual ancestor v X many recently C) Y; emerged before X D) Z; mutual a typical ancestor with X
Which of the following is evidence for allopatric speciation through the development of the Isthmus of Panama?A) One species of the sister varieties lives on the Pacific side. B) hereditary analyses show time that origin. C) Sister varieties diverge first. D) Coordination the geological proof demonstrated varieties divergence.
A hybrid ar is indicated by plot the frequency that the yellow-belly allele across the distance from the center of the hybrid zone. What is the gene frequency that the fire-bellied toad 20 kilometres from the hybrid ar center?A) 1 B) 0 C) 0.1 D) 10
Two models for the rate of speciation are based upon patterns in the fossil record. I beg your pardon of the adhering to statements describes the steady model of evolution?A) species steadily diverge indigenous one another. B) new species adjust suddenly. C) periods of stasis are punctuated by change. D) there is lack of intermediate fossils.
On the volcanic, equatorial West african island of Sao Tomé, two species of fruit paris exist. Drosophila yakuba inhabits the island\"s lowlands and is additionally found on the african mainland, located around 200 miles away. At higher elevations, and also only on Sao Tomé, is discovered the an extremely closely related Drosophila santomea. The two varieties can hybridize, though male hybrids space sterile. A hybrid zone exist at center elevations, though hybrids over there are substantially outnumbered by D. Santomea. Researches of the two species\" nuclear genomes reveal that D. Yakuba on the island is an ext closely pertained to mainland D. Yakuba 보다 to D. Santomea (2n = 4 in both species). Sao Tomé climbed from the Atlantic Ocean about 14 million years ago.
Which of the following reduces gene flow in between the gene pools that the two types on Sao Tomé, despite the visibility of hybrids?A) hybrid failure B) hybrid inviability C) hybrid sterility D) temporal isolation E) a geographic obstacle
On the volcanic, equatorial West african island the Sao Tomé, two varieties of fruit paris exist. Drosophila yakuba inhabits the island\"s lowlands and also is likewise found on the afri mainland, located about 200 miles away. At greater elevations, and also only on Sao Tomé, is discovered the very closely related Drosophila santomea. The two species can hybridize, though masculine hybrids room sterile. A hybrid zone exists at middle elevations, despite hybrids over there are significantly outnumbered by D. Santomea. Research studies of the 2 species\" atom genomes reveal that D. Yakuba on the island is much more closely pertained to mainland D. Yakuba 보다 to D. Santomea (2n = 4 in both species). Sao Tomé climbed from the Atlantic Ocean around 14 million year ago.
If a speciation event arisen on Sao Tomé, producing D. Santomea indigenous a parent swarm of D. Yakuba, then which of the complying with terms uses (apply)?macroevolution
II allopatric speciation
III. Sympatric speciationA) I just B) II only C) I and also II D) I and also III
On the volcanic, equatorial West afri island the Sao Tomé, two species of fruit fly exist. Drosophila yakuba inhabits the island\"s lowlands and also is likewise found top top the afri mainland, located about 200 mile away. At greater elevations, and only on Sao Tomé, is discovered the an extremely closely related Drosophila santomea. The two species can hybridize, though masculine hybrids room sterile. A hybrid zone exists at center elevations, though hybrids there are substantially outnumbered by D. Santomea. Research studies of the two species\" nuclear genomes disclose that D. Yakuba top top the island is more closely related to mainland D. Yakuba than to D. Santomea (2n = 4 in both species). Sao Tomé increased from the Atlantic Ocean around 14 million years ago.
Using just the information provided in the paragraph, i m sorry of the adhering to is the best initial hypothesis for exactly how D. Santomea descended from D. Yakuba?A) geographic isolation B) autopolyploidy C) habitat differentiation D) sexual choice E) allopolyploidy
You find a plant that is larger than others in her wheat field. Once you study the chromosomes that this plant during cell division, you observe that the cells have dual chromosome number of the other wheat plants. Friend conclude that this is one autopolyploid plant representing a new biological species in her wheat ar when girlfriend observeA) productive tetrapods created by self-pollinating. B) manufacturing of hybrid organisms. C) allopolyploids interbreeding with parents. D) ancestral sterile plants.
The observation that island D. Yakuba are an ext closely pertained to mainland D. Yakuba 보다 island D. Yakuba room to D. Santomea is finest explained by proposing the D. SantomeaA) lower from a now-extinct non-African fruit fly. B) arrived on the island prior to yakuba. C) lower from a single colony of yakuba, which had actually been introduced from elsewhere, v no subsequent colonization events.
D) lower from an original swarm of D. Yakuba, of i m sorry there are no enduring members
Which of this evolutionary trees represents the situation described in the ahead paragraph? (Note: D. Yakuba (I) represents the island population, and also D. Yakuba (M) represents the mainland population.)
If the low number of hybrid flies in the hybrid zone, relative to the variety of D. Santomea flies there, is due to the truth that hybrids space poorly adapted to problems in the hybrid zone, and if fewer hybrid paris are developed with the passage of time, these problems will most most likely lead toA) fusion. B) reinforcement. C) stability. D) further speciation events.
On the Bahamian island the Andros, mosquitofish populaces live in various, now-isolated, freshwater ponds the were when united. Currently, part predator-rich ponds have mosquitofish that deserve to swim in short, rapid bursts; various other predator-poor ponds have mosquitofish that have the right to swim repetitively for a long time. When put together in the exact same body of water, the two kinds of mrs mosquitofish exhibition exclusive reproduction preferences.
Which kind of reproductive isolation operates to save the mosquitofish isolated, also when fish from various ponds are reunited in the exact same body of water?A) behavior isolation B) habitat isolation C) temporal isolation D) mechanically isolation E) gametic isolation
On the Bahamian island of Andros, mosquitofish populations live in various, now-isolated, freshwater ponds the were once united. Currently, part predator-rich ponds have actually mosquitofish that have the right to swim in short, rapid bursts; various other predator-poor ponds have mosquitofish that can swim consistently for a long time. When placed together in the very same body of water, the two kinds of female mosquitofish exhibition exclusive breeding preferences.
Which two the the complying with have activate to increase divergence between mosquitofish populations on Andros?enhanced gene flow bottleneck result sexual an option founder result natural selection A) 1 and also 3 B) 2 and also 3 C) 2 and also 4 D) 3 and also 4 E) 3 and also 5
On the Bahamian island that Andros, mosquitofish populaces live in various, now-isolated, freshwater ponds the were as soon as united. Currently, some predator-rich ponds have mosquitofish that can swim in short, rapid bursts; various other predator-poor ponds have actually mosquitofish that deserve to swim repetitively for a long time. When put together in the very same body that water, the two kinds of woman mosquitofish exhibition exclusive breeding preferences.
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What is the best way to promote blend between two related populations of mosquitofish, one of which resides in a predator-rich pond, and also the other of which resides in a predator-poor pond?A) construct a canal linking the 2 ponds that permits totally free movement the mosquitofish, however not of predators. B) Transfer just female mosquitofish from a predator-rich pond come a predator-poor pond. C) carry out a reciprocal transfer of females in between predator-rich and also predator-poor ponds. D) eliminate predators native a predator-rich pond and also transfer them come a predator-poor pond.
If one builds a canal linking a predator-rich pond come a predator-poor pond, then what type of selection should subsequently be most expected among the mosquitofish in the initial predator-rich pond, and also what form should be many expected amongst the mosquitofish in the formerly predator-poor pond?A) stabilizing selection; directional choice B) stability selection; stabilizing choice C) less-intense directional selection; more-intense directional choice D) less-intense disruptive selection; more-intense disruptive selection
The predatory fish count on visual cues and also speed to record mosquitofish. Mosquitofish depend on speed and also visual cues to prevent the predatory fish. I beg your pardon adaptation(s) might assist the predators survive in ponds that are home to quicker mosquitofish?directional choice for increased speed stabilizing selection for rate that matches the of the mosquitofish readjust in hunting actions that replaces reliance on visual cues through reliance ~ above tactile cues adjust in hunting behavior that eliminates speed in favor of far better camouflage, which permits an ambush strategy A) 1 just B) 2 only C) one of two people 1 or 3 D) 1, 3, or 4
In the ocean, top top either next of the Isthmus that Panama, are 30 varieties of snapping shrimp; some room shallow-water species, and also others are adjusted to deep water. There room 15 species on the Pacific side and also 15 different species on the Atlantic side. The Isthmus of Panama started rising around 10 million year ago. The seas were totally separated through the isthmus about 3 million year ago.
Why must deepwater shrimp on different sides that the isthmus have actually diverged from each other earlier than shallow-water shrimp?A) They have been geographically isolated native each various other for a longer time. B) Cold temperatures, linked with deep water, have accelerated the mutation rate, bring about faster aberration in deepwater shrimp. C) The rise of the land bridge was add by much volcanic activity. Volcanic ash includes heavy metals, i beg your pardon are known mutagens. Ash autumn caused high levels of hefty metals in the ocean sediments basic the deep water, resulting in sped up mutation rates and also faster divergence in deepwater shrimp. D) fresh water entering the s from the canal is both less dense and cloudier 보다 seawater. The cloudy new water interferes v the capability of shallow-water shrimp to locate mating partners, i m sorry reduces the frequency of mating, in order to slowing the introduction of hereditary variation.
The largest unit in ~ which gene circulation can readily happen is aA) population. B) species. C) genus. D) hybrid.
Males of different varieties of the fruit paris Drosophila the live in the same parts of the Hawaiian islands have different elaborate courtship rituals. These rituals involve fighting various other males and also making stylized movements that attract females. What form of reproductive isolation does this represent?A) habitat isolation B) temporal isolation C) behavioral isolation D) gametic isolation
According come the punctuated equilibria model,A) natural selection is unimportant as a device of evolution. B) given sufficient time, most existing varieties will branch progressively into brand-new species. C) most development occurs in sympatric populations. D) most new species accumulate their distinct features reasonably rapidly together they come right into existence, climate change little for the rest of your duration together a species.
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and also Audubon\"s warbler as distinctive species. Recently, this birds have been reclassified together eastern and western develops of a solitary species, the yellow-rumped warbler. I m sorry of the adhering to pieces the evidence, if true, would certainly be reason for this reclassification?A) The two forms interbreed frequently in nature, and also their offspring survive and also reproduce well. B) The two creates live in similar habitats and also have comparable food requirements. C) The two develops have many genes in common. D) The two creates are very comparable in coloration.
Which that the following determinants would not add to allopatric speciation?A) A populace becomes geographically isolated from the parental population. B) The separated population is small, and genetic drift occurs. C) The isolated populace is exposed come different choice pressures 보다 the genealogical population. D) Gene flow in between the two populations is extensive.
Plant types A has actually a diploid number of 12. Plant varieties B has a diploid number of 16. A brand-new species, C, arises together an allopolyploid indigenous A and B. The diploid number for types C would probably be