A) mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria v a living nonpathogenic stress, overload can convert some the the living cells right into the pathogenic form.

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B) mix a heat-killed nonpathogenic stress, overload of bacteria v a life pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.

C) Infecting mice through nonpathogenic strains the bacteria provides them resistant come pathogenic strains.

D) mice infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria have the right to spread the infection to various other mice.



2) exactly how do us describe transformation in bacteria?

A) the production of a strand of DNA indigenous an RNA molecule

B) the development of a strand the RNA native a DNA molecule

C) the epidemic of cell by a phage DNA molecule

D) adaptation of outside DNA right into a cell



3) After mix a heat-killed, phosphorescent (light-emitting) strain of bacteria with a living, nonphosphorescent strain, you discover that few of the living cell are currently phosphorescent. Which observation(s) would administer the finest evidence the the capacity to phosphoresce is a heritable trait?

A) proof that DNA to be passed from the heat-killed strain to the living strain

B) evidence that protein passed native the heat-killed stress, overload to the living strain

C) particularly bright phosphorescence in the living strain

D) phosphorescence in progeny of the living cells



4) In do the efforts to identify whether DNA or protein is the hereditary material, Hershey and also Chase made use of i beg your pardon of the adhering to facts?

A) DNA includes sulfur, vice versa, protein walk not.

B) DNA has phosphorus, vice versa, protein does not.

C) DNA contains nitrogen, conversely, protein walk not.

D) DNA contains purines, whereas protein includes pyrimidines.



5) which of the following investigators was (were) responsible for the adhering to discovery?

In DNA from any species, the quantity of adenine equals the lot of thymine, and the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine.

A) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

B) Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and Colin MacLeod

C) Erwin Chargaff

D) Matthew Meselson and also Franklin Stahl



6) Cytosine provides up 42% that the nucleotides in a sample that DNA from an organism. Approximately what portion of the nucleotides in this sample will be thymine?

A) 8%

B) 16%

C) 42%

D) 58%



7) it became apparent to Watson and also Crick after completion of their design that the DNA molecule could bring a large amount of hereditary info in i m sorry of the following?

A) sequence of bases

B) phosphate-sugar backbones

C) security pairing that bases

D) side teams of nitrogenous bases



8) In an evaluation of the nucleotide composition of DNA, i beg your pardon of the adhering to will be found?

A) A = C

B) A = G and also C = T

C) A + C = G + T

D) G + C = T + A



9) for a science fair project, two students made decision to repeat the Hershey and Chase experiment, through modifications. They chose to brand the nitrogen of the DNA, rather than the phosphate. They reasoned that each nucleotide has actually only one phosphate and two to 5 nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would provide a more powerful signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won"t this experiment work?

A) there is no radioactive isotope that nitrogen.

B) radiation nitrogen has actually a half-life the 100,000 years, and also the material would be as well dangerous for as well long.

C) Although over there are much more nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually have actually sixteen extra neutrons; therefore, they are much more radioactive.

D) Amino acids (and thus proteins) likewise have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish between DNA and also proteins.



10) Hershey and also Chase collection out to identify what molecule offered as the unit that inheritance. They perfect a collection of experiment in which E. Coli was infected by a T2 virus. I m sorry molecular ingredient of the T2 virus actually ended up inside the cell?

A) protein


C) ribosome




11) In the polymerization that DNA, a phosphodiester bond is formed between a phosphate group of the nucleotide being added and _____ of the last nucleotide in the polymer.

A) the 5" phosphate B) C6 C) the 3" oh D) a nitrogen indigenous the nitrogen-containing base



12) Replication in prokaryotes differs from replication in eukaryotes because that which that the adhering to reasons?

A) prokaryotic chromosomes have actually histones, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes execute not.

B) prokaryotes chromosomes have actually a solitary origin that replication, whereas eukaryotic bio chromosomes have many.

C) The rate of elongation during DNA replication is slow in prokaryotes 보다 in eukaryotes.

D) Prokaryotes produce Okazaki fragments throughout DNA replication, however eukaryotes do not.



13) What is intended by the description "antiparallel" about the strands that make up DNA?

A) The twisting nature the DNA create nonparallel strands. B) The 5" come 3" direction that one strand runs respond to to the come direction of the various other strand. C) basic pairings produce unequal spacing in between the two DNA strands. D) One strand contains only purines and the other consists of only pyrimidines.



14) suppose you are detailed with an actively dividing culture of E. Coli bacteria to which radiation thymine has been added. What would occur if a cell replicates as soon as in the existence of this radiation base?

A) one of the daughter cells, yet not the other, would have radioactive DNA.

B) neither of the two daughter cells would certainly be radioactive.

C) All four bases of the DNA would certainly be radioactive.

D) DNA in both daughter cells would certainly be radioactive.



15) In E. Coli, there is a mutation in a gene dubbed dnaB that transforms the helicase that generally acts in ~ the origin. Which of the complying with would you intend as a result of this mutation?

A) additional proofreading will certainly occur.

B) No replication fork will certainly be formed.

C) Replication will take place via RNA polymerase alone.

D) Replication will need a DNA theme from an additional source.



16) In E. Coli, i beg your pardon enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a brand-new DNA strand in the → direction?

A) primase B) DNA ligase C) DNA polymerase III D) helicase



17) eukaryotic bio telomeres replicate in different ways than the rest of the chromosome. This is a repercussion of i m sorry of the following?

A) the advancement of telomerase enzyme B) DNA polymerase the cannot replicate the leading strand design template to that is 5" finish C) gaps left at the 5" finish of the lagging strand D) gaps left in ~ the 3" finish of the lagging strand because of the require for a primer



18) how does the enzyme telomerase accomplish the difficulty of replicating the ends of linear chromosomes?

A) that adds a solitary cap structure that resists destruction by nucleases. B) it causes specific double-strand DNA breaks that an outcome in blunt ends top top both strands. C) it catalyzes the lengthening the telomeres, compensating because that the shortening that might occur during replication without telomerase activity. D) that adds countless GC pairs, which withstand hydrolysis and maintain chromosome integrity.



19) The DNA of telomeres has actually been highly conserved transparent the development of eukaryotes. This most most likely reflects _____.

A) the short frequency the mutations occurring in this DNA B) ongoing evolution the telomeres C) that brand-new mutations in telomeres have been advantageous D) a critical function of telomeres



20) in ~ a details area of a chromosome, the succession of nucleotides below is current where the chain opens up to type a replication fork:

3" C C T A G G C T G C A A T C C 5"

An RNA primer is formed beginning at the underlined T (T) the the template. Which of the following represents the primer sequence?

A) 5" G C C T A G G 3" B) 5" A C G T T A G G 3" C) 5" A C G U U A G G 3" D) 5" G C C U A G G 3"



21) In E. Coli, to repair a thymine dimer by nucleotide cut repair, in i m sorry order execute the vital enzymes act?

A) nuclease, DNA polymerase III, RNA primase

B) helicase, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase

C) DNA ligase, nuclease, helicase

D) nuclease, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase



22) In E. Coli, what is the duty of DNA polymerase III?

A) to unwind the DNA helix during replication B) come seal together the damaged ends that DNA strands C) to include nucleotides to the finish of a cultivation DNA strand D) come degrade damaged DNA molecule



23) The difference between ATP and the nucleoside triphosphates used during DNA synthesis is the _____.

A) the nucleoside triphosphates have the sugar deoxyribose; ATP has the street ribose

B) the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two phosphate groups; ATP has three phosphate groups

C) ATP consists of three high-energy bonds; the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two

D) ATP is uncovered only in human being cells; the nucleoside triphosphates are discovered in all animal and plant cells



24) The leading and the lagging strands differ in that _____.

A) the top strand is synthesized in the exact same direction as the activity of the replication fork, and the lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction B) the top strand is synthesized by including nucleotides to the end of the growing strand, and also the lagging strand is synthesized by including nucleotides come the end C) the lagging strand is synthesized continuously, conversely, the leading strand is synthesized in short fragments that are eventually stitched with each other D) the top strand is synthesized at twice the rate of the lagging strand



25) A new DNA strand elongates only in the 5" to 3" direction due to the fact that _____.

A) DNA polymerase begins including nucleotides in ~ the 5" end of the template B) the polarity of the DNA molecule prevents addition of nucleotides in ~ the 3" finish C) replication should progress towards the replication fork D) DNA polymerase can include nucleotides only to the cost-free 3" finish



26) What is the function of topoisomerase?

A) relieving stress, overload in the DNA front of the replication fork

B) elongating brand-new DNA in ~ a replication fork by including nucleotides come the currently chain

C) unwinding of the dual helix

D) stability single-stranded DNA at the replication fork



27) What is the role of DNA ligase in the elongation that the lagging strand throughout DNA replication?

A) it synthesizes RNA nucleotides to do a primer.

B) It join Okazaki fragments together.

C) the unwinds the parental dual helix.

D) the stabilizes the unwound parental DNA.



28) i m sorry of the adhering to help(s) to host the DNA strands apart when they space being replicated?

A) primase

B) ligase

C) DNA polymerase

D) single-strand DNA binding proteins



29) people with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum room hypersensitive to sunlight. This occurs because their cells cannot_____.

A) replicate DNA

B) undergo mitosis

C) exchange DNA with other cells

D) fix thymine dimers



30) i beg your pardon of the complying with would you mean of a eukaryote doing not have telomerase?

A) a high probability that somatic cells becoming cancerous

B) an i can not qualify to produce Okazaki fragments

C) an inability to fix thymine dimers

D) a reduction in chromosome size in gametes



31) In the so late 1950s, Meselson and also Stahl grew bacteria in a tool containing "heavy" nitrogen (15N) and then transferred them come a medium containing 14N. I beg your pardon of the outcomes in the figure above would be expected after one round of DNA replication in the existence of 14N?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



32) A space probe returns through a society of a microorganism found top top a far-off planet. Evaluation shows that it is a carbon-based life-form that has DNA. You thrive the cells in 15N tool for number of generations and also then transfer them come 14N medium. Which pattern in the figure above would you suppose if the DNA was replicated in a conservative manner?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



33) after ~ the very first replication was observed in their experiments testing the nature of DNA replication, Meselson and Stahl might be i was sure of i m sorry of the following conclusions?

A) Replication is semi-conservative.

B) Replication is no dispersive.

C) Replication is no conservative.

D) Replication is neither dispersive nor conservative.



34) you briefly reveal bacteria experience DNA replication to radioactively labeled nucleotides. Once you centrifuge the DNA isolated from the bacteria, the DNA separates into two classes. One class of labeled DNA consists of very huge molecules (thousands or even millions of nucleotides long), and the other includes brief stretches that DNA (several hundred to a couple of thousand nucleotides in length). These 2 classes of DNA probably represent _____.

A) leading strands and also Okazaki fragments

B) lagging strands and also Okazaki fragments

C) Okazaki fragments and RNA primers

D) leading strands and RNA primers



35) in ~ a double-stranded DNA molecule, adenine forms hydrogen bonds through thymine and also cytosine creates hydrogen bonds v guanine. This setup _____.

A) permits variable width of the dual helix

B) patent complementary basic pairing

C) determines the tertiary framework of a DNA molecule

D) determines the kind of protein produced



36) Semiconservative replication entails a template. What is the template?

A) single-stranded binding proteins

B) DNA polymerase

C) one strand of the DNA molecule

D) an RNA molecule



37) DNA is synthesized v a process known as _____.

A) semiconservative replication

B) conservative replication

C) translation

D) transcription



38) who performed classic experiments that supported the semiconservative design of DNA replication?

A) Watson and Crick

B) Meselson and also Stahl

C) Hershey and Chase

D) Franklin and also Wilkins



39) DNA includes the template essential to copy itself, yet it has actually no catalytic activity in cells. What catalyzes the development of phosphodiester bonds between nearby nucleotides in the DNA polymer being formed?

A) ribozymes

B) DNA polymerase


D) deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates



40) What gives the energy for the polymerization reaction in DNA synthesis?


B) DNA polymerase

C) break the hydrogen bonds in between complementary DNA strands

D) the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate substrates



41) describe the number above. What bases will be included to the primer together DNA replication proceeds? The bases should show up in the brand-new strand in the order the they will certainly be added beginning at the 3" end of the primer.

A) C, A, G, C, A, G, A B) T, C, T, G, C, T, G C) A, G, A, C, G, A, C D) G, T, C, G, T, C, T



42) What is the difference in between the leading strand and the lagging strand in DNA replication?

A) The top strand is synthesized in the 3"→5" direction in a discontinuous fashion, while the lagging strand is synthesized in the 5"→3" direction in a continuous fashion. B) The top strand is synthesized repetitively in the5"→3" direction, while the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in the 5" → 3" C) The top strand needs an RNA primer, vice versa, the lagging strand does not. D) over there are various DNA polymerases connected in elongation that the leading strand and the lagging strand.



43) What is a major difference in between eukaryotic DNA replication and also prokaryotic DNA replication?

A) prokaryotes replication go not require a primer. B) prokaryotes chromosomes have a solitary origin the replication, while eukaryotic chromosomes have actually multiple origins of replication. C) DNA replication in prokaryotic cells is conservative. DNA replication in eukaryotic bio cells is semi-conservative. D) DNA polymerases the prokaryotes can include nucleotides to both 3’and 5’ends of DNA strands, while those that eukaryotes duty only in the 5’ → 3’



44) What is a telomere?

A) the system that holds two sister chromatids together

B) DNA replication throughout telophase

C) the site of beginning of DNA replication

D) the end of linear chromosomes



45) Telomere shortening puts a limit on the number of times a cell deserve to divide. Research has displayed that telomerase can prolong the life expectations of cultured human being cells. Exactly how might including telomerase affect cellular aging?

A) Telomerase will speed up the rate of cabinet proliferation.

B) Telomerase eliminates telomere shortening and also retards aging.

C) Telomerase shortens telomeres, i beg your pardon delays to move aging.

D) Telomerase would have no result on to move aging.



46) Telomere shortening is a difficulty in which types of cells?

A) just prokaryotic cells

B) just eukaryotic cells

C) cell in prokaryotes and also eukaryotes



47) which of the following cells have diminished or very little active telomerase activity?

A) most normal somatic cells

B) most normal germ cells

C) many cancer cells



48) Researchers discovered E. Coli that had actually mutation rates one hundreds times higher than normal. I m sorry of the complying with is the most likely cause of these results?

A) The single-stranded binding proteins were malfunctioning. B) There were one or more mismatches in the RNA primer. C) The proofreading device of DNA polymerase to be not working properly. D) The DNA polymerase to be unable to include bases come the end of the growing nucleic mountain chain.



49) In a healthy and balanced cell, the price of DNA repair is same to the price of DNA mutation. When the price of fix lags behind the rate of mutation, what is a feasible fate of the cell?

A) The cell can be transformed to a cancer cell. B) RNA might be used rather of DNA together inheritance material. C) The cell will come to be embryonic. D) DNA synthesis will continue by a brand-new mechanism.



50) i beg your pardon of the complying with statements defines a eukaryotic bio chromosome?

A) a single strand of DNA

B) a collection of nucleosomes wrapped around two DNA molecules

C) a chromosome with different numbers of gene in different cell varieties of one organism

D) a solitary linear molecule the double-stranded DNA plus proteins



51) If a cell to be unable to create histone proteins, i beg your pardon of the complying with would be a likely effect?

A) There would certainly be rise in the amount of "satellite" DNA created during centrifugation.

B) The cell"s DNA couldn"t it is in packed right into its nucleus.

C) Spindle fibers would not kind during prophase.

D) Amplification of other genes would compensate for the absence of histones.



52) i m sorry of the complying with statements is true of histones?

A) every nucleosome consists of two molecules the histone H1.

B) Histone H1 is not present in the nucleosome bead; instead, that draws the nucleosomes together.

C) The carboxyl finish of every histone extends exterior from the nucleosome and also is dubbed a "histone tail."

D) Histones are discovered in mammals, yet not in other pets or in tree or fungi.



53) Why carry out histones bind tightly to DNA?

A) Histones space positively charged, and DNA is negative charged.

B) Histones are negatively charged, and DNA is positively charged.

C) Both histones and also DNA room strongly hydrophobic.

D) Histones space covalently attached to the DNA.



54) which of the following represents the order of increasingly greater levels of organization of chromatin?

A) nucleosome, 30-nm dyed fiber, looped domain

B) looped domain, 30-nm dyed fiber, nucleosome

C) nucleosome, looped domain, 30-nm chromatin fiber

D) 30-nm chromatin fiber, nucleosome, looped domain



55) i beg your pardon of the following statements describes chromatin?

A) Heterochromatin is created of DNA, conversely, euchromatin is do of DNA and also RNA.

B) Both heterochromatin and euchromatin are discovered in the cytoplasm.

C) Heterochromatin is highly condensed, conversely, euchromatin is much less compact.

D) Euchromatin is no transcribed, conversely, heterochromatin is transcribed.



56) which of the adhering to is most crucial for the association in between histones and DNA?

A) Histones are little proteins.

B) Histones are highly conserved (that is, histones are very similar in every eukaryote).

C) There are at the very least five different histone proteins in every eukaryote.

D) Histones room positively charged.



57) In E. Coli replication the enzyme primase is supplied to attach a 5 come 10 basic ribonucleotide strand complementary to the parental DNA strand. The RNA strand serves together a starting point for the DNA

polymerase the replicates the DNA. If a mutation occurred in the primase gene, which of the following would girlfriend expect?

A) Replication would only happen on the leading strand.

B) Replication would only happen on the lagging strand.

C) Replication would not happen on either the top or lagging strand.

D) Replication would not be affected as the enzyme primase in connected with RNA synthesis.



58) Hershey and also Chase used a DNA-based virus for their work. What would certainly the results have been if they had used an RNA virus?

A) v an RNA virus radiation protein would certainly have been in the final pellet. B) with an RNA virus radiation RNA would certainly have remained in the final pellet. C) v an RNA virus neither sample would certainly have had a radiation pellet. D) with an RNA virus the protein shell would have actually been radiation in both samples.



59) The lagging strand is characterized by a series of short segments of DNA (Okazaki fragments) that will certainly be joined with each other to form a perfect lagging strand. The experiment that brought about the discovery of Okazaki

fragments gave proof for i m sorry of the following ideas?

A) DNA polymerase is a directional enzyme the synthesizes leading and also lagging strands during replication.

B) DNA is a polymer consists of four monomers: adenine, thymine, guanine, and also cytosine.

C) DNA is the hereditary material.

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D) bacter replication is fundamentally various from eukaryotic bio replication. The vital shouldn’t be means longer than the distractors.