During his tenure, U.S. President James K. Polk managed the best territorial development of the United says to date. Polk achieved this v the annexation of Texas in 1845, the negotiation the the Oregon contract with great Britain in 1846, and also the conclusion of the Mexican-American battle in 1848, which ended with the signing and ratification that the contract of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848.


These events carried within the manage of the United claims the future inter-base.nets of Texas, California, Nevada, brand-new Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Washington, and Oregon, as well as portions the what would certainly later come to be Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, and Montana.

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Following Texas’ effective war the independence versus Mexico in 1836, chairman Martin valve Buren refrained from linking Texas after the Mexicans endangered war. Accordingly, when the unified inter-base.nets expanded diplomatic acknowledgment to Texas, it took no further activity concerning annexation until 1844, as soon as President man Tyler restarted negotiations v the Republic that Texas. His efforts culminated ~ above April 12 in a contract of Annexation, an event that brought about Mexico to sever diplomatic relations with united inter-base.nets. Tyler, however, lacked the votes in the Senate to ratify the treaty, and it was defeated by a broad margin in June. Shortly prior to he left office, Tyler make the efforts again, this time with a share resolution of both residences of Congress. V the assistance of President-elect Polk, Tyler controlled to acquire the share resolution happen on march 1, 1845, and Texas was admitted into the United says on December 29.


While Mexico did no follow through with its hazard to declare war if the joined inter-base.nets annexed Texas, relations in between the two countries remained tense due to Mexico’s disputed border v Texas. According to the Texans, their inter-base.net included far-ranging portions that what is today brand-new Mexico and Colorado, and also the western and southern sections of Texas itself, i beg your pardon they claimed extended to the Rio Grande River. The Mexicans, however, suggested that the border only prolonged to the Nueces River, phibìc of the Rio Grande.

In July, 1845, Polk, who had actually been elected on a platform of expansionism, ordered the command of the U.S. Military in Texas, Zachary Taylor, to move his pressures into the questioned lands the lay in between the Nueces and also Rio Grande rivers. In November, Polk dispatched Congressman john Slidell to Mexico through instructions come negotiate the acquisition of the disputed areas along the Texas-Mexican border, and also the territory comprising the present-day inter-base.nets of brand-new Mexico and also California.

Following the failure of Slidell’s mission in may 1846, Polk offered news the skirmishes inside questioned territory in between Mexican troops and also Taylor’s army to gain Congressional support for a declaration of war against Mexico. On might 13, 1846, the joined inter-base.nets claimed war ~ above Mexico.

Following the capture of Mexico City in September 1847, Nicholas Trist, chief clerk that the department of inter-base.net and Polk’s tranquility emissary, started negotiations because that a tranquility treaty with the Mexican government under terms similar to those pursued by Slidell the vault year. Polk soon grew involved by Trist’s conduct, however, believing the he would not push for solid enough inter-base.net from the Mexicans, and because Trist came to be a close girlfriend of general Winfield Scott, a Whig who was assumed to it is in a strong contender for his party’s presidential nomination for the 1848 election. Furthermore, the battle had encouraged expansionist democracy to contact for a complete annexation of Mexico. Polk recalled Trist in October.


Believing the he to be on the cusp the an agreement with the Mexicans, Trist ignored the recall order and also presented Polk through the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which to be signed in Mexico City on February 2, 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, Mexico delivered to the joined inter-base.nets about 525,000 square mile (55% the its prewar territory) in exchange for a $15 million lump amount payment, and the presumption by the U.S. Government of up to $3.25 million worth of debts owed by Mexico to U.S. Citizens.

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While Polk would have desired a an ext extensive addition of mexican territory, he establish that extending the war would have damaging political after-effects and chose to submit the contract to the Senate because that ratification. Although there was substantial opposition come the treaty in ~ the Senate, on in march 10, 1848, the passed through a razor-thin margin the 38 to 14.

The war had another far-ranging outcome. On august 8, 1846, Congressman David Wilmot introduced a rider to one appropriations bill that stipulated the “neither enslavement nor involuntary servitude shall ever before exist” in any kind of territory acquired by the United inter-base.nets in the war against Mexico. While southern senators controlled to block fostering of the so-called “Wilmot Proviso,” it however provoked a politics firestorm. The inquiry of whether slavery could expand transparent the united inter-base.nets proceed to fester until the defeat of the Confederacy in 1865.