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Samuel Adams portrait. Samuel Okey. 1775. Nationwide Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

On the eve of the American Revolution, Samuel Adams, Dr. Joseph Warren, James Otis, and other Patriot leader in Boston recognized the prominence of cumulative resistance, the strength of correspondence, and an ext importantly the an important significance of town meetings. They recognized that in order come gain popular support they necessary to split the strength of the communities away from British rule. Their first step was to get influence in city meetings throughout Massachusetts, which were primarily dominated by Loyalists, although currently the number of Patriot pendant was farming rapidly. In Boston top top Monday, November 2, 1772, they arranged a town meeting in ~ Faneuil Hall and garnered sufficient support to vote in a resolution to develop a standing Committee of Correspondence. The objective of the Boston Committee the Correspondence was to “Prepare a declare of the civil liberties of the colonists, and of this district in particular, together men, as Christians, and as subjects; Prepare a statements of the infringement that those rights; and also Prepare a letter to be sent out to all the communities of this province and to the world, offering the feeling of this town.”


The very first communication the Boston Committee that Correspondence sent out to the towns of Massachusetts was a list of grievances they had actually with Britain and a request the their views be endorsed. Accompanying the list of grievances was a request the asked for “a complimentary communication of her sentiments to this town, that our typical danger”. The list contained the following grievances:


i. “British Parliament has assumed power of law for the colonists without your consent.”
ii. “Parliament has raised illegal revenues.”
iii. “Tax collectors have actually been appointed by the Crown, a right scheduled to the province.”
iv. “Tax collectors are entrusted with power also absolute and arbitrary. Personal premises space exposed to search.”
vi. “Tax revenue has been supplied by King to salary provincial federal government officers, making castle dependent ~ above him, in violation the the charter.”
vii. “General assemblies are required to accomplish in inconvenient places. Tasks of the council have actually been limited.”
ix. “Restraints are placed versus iron mills, cap manufacture, and also transport; wool cannot be brought over a ferry; plenty of other businesses space curtailed.”
x. “Colonists accused of destroying any type of British naval residential or commercial property are to it is in transported to England because that trial.”
xii. “Parliament is make frequent change of the border of the colonies, not according come charter.”

Immediately complying with the issuing the the perform of grievances, the bulk of communities in Massachusetts took stock in the example set by the Boston Committee that Correspondence and also established a network that Committees that Correspondence throughout the colony of Massachusetts. The name Committee of Correspondence aided garner support during this radical period. Rather than gift singular in title, words “committee” tote no classic ring and carried much more moral strength in the mental of the colonists than a inquiry from a single representative or even a solitary town would have.

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Function

Soon after ~ the development of the Boston Committee the Correspondence and also the network the Committees of post which soon sprung up all over Massachusetts, in the feather of 1773 Committees of correspondence were established in the swarms of Rhode Island, Connecticut, new Hampshire, and also South Carolina. Through February 1774, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies, not included Pennsylvania and North Carolina, had created networks of Committees the Correspondence. In regards to power, by early 1774 the Committees the Correspondence had superseded the early american legislature and also royal officials in the Thirteen Colonies. The Committees of correspondence were prominent in revolutionizing the city meeting from discussions of local matters to significant global politics. In effect, the city meeting came to be the action-level for the Patriot cause. This meetings offered as a method for the came to citizenry to voice their opinions about the grievances they had actually with Britain.

The primary role of the Committees the Correspondence was the championing and also implementation the the Patriot reason through diplomatic means. The large network of Committees that Correspondence offered as a an effective pipeline with which information might betransfer to every one of the Thirteen Colonies. The Committees the Correspondence served as a well-calculated Patriot network for the dissemination of news and information as it regarded grievances through Britain native the major cities come the landscape communities. The Committees of Correspondence were responsible for ensuring the details they disseminated was accurate and also reflected the views of their regional parent governments on particular issues, the early american interpretation of brother policy, and also that the info they approve was sent to the suitable factions. Information was disseminated by the Committees that Correspondence transparent the Thirteen swarms through pamphlets and letters brought by post riders or onboard ships. Additionally, papers served as an essential tools and also communiqués because that the network that Committees that Correspondence. The Boston Committee of correspondence relied on the Boston Gazette and Massachusetts Spy together a principle way of disseminating information regarding the Patriot cause and also grievances with Britain. The Committees that Correspondence advocated manufacturing in the Thirteen Colonies and advised colonists not to buy goods imported indigenous Britain.

The goal of the Committees that Correspondence throughout the Thirteen swarms was to notify voters of the usual threat they challenged from your mother country – Britain. The majority of the members of the Committees of post were additionally members the their regional chapters of the mystery Patriot organization the sons of Liberty. They set up espionage networks to identify disloyal elements and also disenfranchised royal officials. The Maryland Committee of post was influential in establishing the an initial Continental Congress. Lock convened in Philadelphia in September and October of 1774 to petition Britain to repeal the Intolerable Acts. Committees the Correspondence worked in conjunction with the Committees the Safety, official Councils of battle – i beg your pardon had been in existence since the 17th century. The Committees that Safety, favor the Committees the Correspondence, were developed on the eve of the American change throughout the Thirteen colonies in an answer to tensions through Britain and also empowered committees come “alarm, muster, and also cause to it is in assembled” as lot of the provincial militia as essential at any kind of time. The Committees the Correspondence and also the Committees of Safety, most notably in Massachusetts, were significant in the organizing, training, and arming of Patriot militias and also establishing suppliers of minute guys prior come the outbreak that the American change on April 19, 1775, at Lexington and Concord. Committees the Correspondence listed the political organization crucial to hold together the Thirteen nests in opposition come Britain. As a politics entity, the Committees that Correspondence to be replaced during the American revolution by the much more formal and also qualified Provincial Congresses however they still ongoing to role at the local level.


The Committees that Correspondence could hardly insurance claim to it is in the voice of the majority of colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, but their voice to be the loudest and most transfer of every the factions.

With what showed up as an excellent support and acceptance throughout the Thirteen Colonies, Committees of post were viewed as a significant grievance to supporters of the Loyalist cause. In July 1774 in Worcester, Massachusetts – a hotbed of Patriot support- a letter signed through fifty-two “free men” stated the adhering to denouncing the Committees that Correspondence as rebellious: “The committees of correspondence in the number of towns the this province, gift creatures of modern-day invention, and also constituted as they be, space a public grievance; having actually no legit foundation; contrived by a junto, to serve particular designs and also purposes of their own; and that they, as they have been, and now are controlled in this town, room a nuisance.” The Committees of Correspondence could hardly case to it is in the voice the the majority of colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, yet their voice to be the loudest and most broadcasted of all the factions. The was really easy to create and form a regional Committee the Correspondence. Any localized team of Patriots could form a committee and also join the large network of Committees the Correspondence and also serve together the Patriot voice because that their particular region. Roughly, 7,000 to 8,000 Patriots served as delegates at the local and also colony level on the assorted Committees of Correspondence. Nonetheless, the influence and implications that the Committees the Correspondence to be enormous and also directly led to the outbreak the the American Revolution.

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The Tea Party Connection

With come of the Dartmouth, Eleanor, and also Beaver moving cargoes the British eastern India company Tea, the Boston Committee that Correspondence was charged with controlling the “tea crisis” in so late 1773. The Boston Committee of Correspondence was the driving force of the December 16, 1773, Boston Tea Party, which was brought out by the boy of Liberty. Samuel Adams was the influential leader that both organizations. The meetings in November and also December in ~ the Old south Meeting residence held prior to the Boston Tea Party were organized by the Boston Committee of Correspondence and also the boy of Liberty. Samuel Adams referred to as upon the Committees of post from throughout Massachusetts because that support, calling them to be in “readiness in the most resolute manner to help this town in their efforts for conserving this oppressed country”.


Samuel Adams called upon the Committees the Correspondent from throughout Massachusetts for support, calling castle to it is in in “readiness in the many resolute way to help this city in their initiatives for saving this oppressed country.”

Immediately following the December 16, 1773, Boston Tea Party, Samuel Adams connected the news the the Boston Tea Party with the large networks that the Committees the Correspondence throughout the Thirteen Colonies. In letters dated as early as December 17, Samuel Adams report on the event and emphasized the damage of the “detested tea” took location “without the the very least Injury come the vessels or any other property”. Property rights were one of Samuel Adams’ main arguments versus British taxation, thus he had to do clear the only damage the Boston Tea Party caused was the damage of the tea. Paul Revere rode come Manhattan, new York, getting here on December 21 to provide the Boston Committee that Correspondence’s report the the devastation of the tea. The Boston Committee that Correspondence report the following: “We had actually a better Meeting of the Body than ever. The country coming in from Twenty miles round, and every action was taken that was practicable because that returning the Teas. The moment it was known out of Doors, the Mr. Rotch can not attain a happen for his delivery by the Castle, a number of People huzza’d in the Street, and in a very small Time, every oz of the Teas on board of Capt. Hall, Bruce, and also Coffin, to be immersed in the Bay, without the the very least Injury to private Property. The heart of the human being on this occasion surprised all Parties, who regarded the Scene.”


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