Chapter finding out OutcomesExplain the trait approaches to the research of leadership.Discuss the restrictions of trait approaches to leadership.Explain the behaviours the are connected with leadership.Discuss the restrictions of behavioural approaches to leadership.Describe the Fiedler’s contingency concept of leadership.Describe Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational management Theory (SLT)Explain the Path-Goal concept of leadershipDescribe Vroom & Yetton’s Normative Decision Model.Distinguish in between transformational and transactional leaders.Explain several of the more recent approaches to leadership: charismatic, servant and authentic leadership.Consider the function of leadership for ethical behaviour.Consider the function of national culture on leadership.
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The earliest method to the research of leadership sought to identify a set of traits that distinguished leaders indigenous nonleaders. What to be the personality characteristics and the physical and psychological attributes of world who are viewed as leaders? due to the fact that of the troubles in measure up of personality traits in ~ the time, different studies used various measures. By 1940, researcher concluded the the search for leadership-defining traits to be futile. In current years, though, after ~ the advances in personality literature such together the breakthrough of the huge Five personality framework, researchers have actually had an ext success in identifying traits the predict management (House & Aditya, 1997). Many importantly, charismatic leadership, i beg your pardon is among the modern approaches to leadership, may be regarded as an example of a trait approach.
The traits the show fairly strong relationships with management are discussed below (Judge et al., 2002).
Many observers think that Carly Fiorina, the ousted CEO the HP, prove high level of intelligence but low level of empathy because that the people around her, which brought about an overreliance on numbers while skipping the human price of her decisions (Karlgaard, 2002).
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General mental ability, often dubbed “IQ” in day-to-day language, has been pertained to a person’s arising as a leader within a group. Specifically, civilization who have basic high mental abilities are an ext likely come be viewed as leaders in their setting (House & Aditya, 1997; Ilies, Gerhardt, & Huy, 2004; Lord, De Vader, & Alliger, 1986; Taggar, Hackett, & Saha, 1999). We have to caution, though, that knowledge is a positive however modest predictor that leadership, and when actual intelligence is measured v paper-and-pencil tests, its connection to management is a bit weaker compared to when knowledge is identified as the perceived intelligence of a leader (Judge, Colbert, & Ilies, 2004). In addition to having a high IQ, efficient leaders often tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ). People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The psychologist that coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes the IQ is a threshold quality: the matters because that entry- to high-level administration jobs, but once you obtain there, the no much longer helps leaders, since most leaders already have a high IQ. Follow to Goleman, what differentiates effective leaders indigenous ineffective ones becomes their ability to manage their very own emotions and also understand various other people’s emotions, their interior motivation, and their social an abilities (Goleman, 2004).
Big 5 Personality Traits
Psychologists have proposed miscellaneous systems because that categorizing the attributes that comprise an individual’s unique personality; among the most widely accepted is the “Big Five” model, which rates an individual follow to Openness come experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and also Neuroticism. Numerous of the big Five personality traits have actually been related to leadership introduction (whether someone is perceived as a leader through others) and also effectiveness (Judge et al., 2002).
Figure 11.2 Big five Personality Traits
|Openness||Being curious, original, intellectual, creative, and also open to brand-new ideas.|
|Conscientiousness||Being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement-oriented, and dependable.|
|Extraversion||Being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations|
|Agreeableness||Being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm.|
|Neuroticism||Being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody.|
Steve Ballmer, CEO of Microsoft Corporation, is one extraverted leader. Because that example, to celebrate Microsoft’s 25th anniversary, Ballmer enthusiastically popped out of the anniversary cake to surprised the audience.
For example, extraversion is regarded leadership. Extraverts are sociable, assertive, and also energetic people. Castle enjoy connecting with rather in their environment and also demonstrate self-confidence. Due to the fact that they room both dominant and sociable in their environment, they emerge as leaders in a wide range of situations. Out of all personality traits, extraversion has actually the strongest relationship with both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. This is no to say that all effective leaders space extraverts, however you are an ext likely to discover extraverts in management positions. An instance of one introverted leader is Jim Buckmaster, the CEO that Craigslist. He is recognized as an introvert, and he admits come not having actually meetings because he walk not prefer them (Buckmaster, 2008). Research shows that one more personality trait related to leadership is conscientiousness. Conscientious human being are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate persistence in their endeavors. Conscientious human being are more likely to emerge as leaders and be efficient in the role. Finally, world who have openness come experience—those who show originality, creativity, and also are open to trying brand-new things—tend to arise as leader and likewise be quite effective.
Self-esteem is not one of the large Five personality traits, however it is an important aspect the one’s personality. The degree to i m sorry a human is at tranquility with oneself and has an as whole positive evaluate of one’s me worth and also capabilities seem to be appropriate to whether who is viewed as a leader. Leaders with high self-esteem support their subordinates an ext and, once punishment is administered, they punish more effectively (Atwater et al., 1998; Niebuhr, 1984).It is feasible that those with high self-esteem have higher levels the self-confidence and also this affect their photo in the eyes of their followers. Self-esteem may additionally explain the relationship in between some physics attributes and also leader emergence. Because that example, research mirrors a solid relationship between being tall and being regarded as a leader (as well together one’s job success end life). That is proposed that self-esteem might be the vital mechanism linking height to being regarded as a leader, due to the fact that people who room taller are likewise found to have higher self-esteem and also therefore might project higher levels that charisma and also confidence to your followers (Judge & Cable, 2004).
Research also shows that world who are efficient as leaders tend to have a moral compass and also demonstrate honesty and also integrity (Reave, 2005). Leaders who integrity is questioned lose their trustworthiness, and they hurt your company’s company along the way. Because that example, once it was revealed that whole Foods market CEO man Mackey was making use of a pseudonym to make negative comments online around the company’s competitor Wild Oats industries Inc., his action were greatly criticized, his management was questioned, and also the company’s reputation was impacted (Farrell & Davidson, 2007).
Figure 11.4 Key Traits linked With Leadership
There are likewise some traits that are negatively regarded leader emergence and being effective in the position. For example, agreeable people who are modest, great natured, and also avoid conflict are less likely come be viewed as leader (Judge et al., 2002).
Condoleezza Rice had various responsibilities as the provost the Stanford University compared to her function as secretary of state because that the united States. Do you think this differences affected her behaviour as a leader?
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Despite troubles in characteristics approaches, this findings deserve to still be helpful to managers and also companies. For example, knowing around leader traits help organizations select the right people into location of responsibility. The key to benefiting from the result of trait researcher is to be mindful that no all traits are equally effective in predicting leadership potential across all circumstances. Some organizational situations permit leader characteristics to do a greater distinction (House & Aditya, 1997). For example, in small, entrepreneurial establishments where leaders have a many leeway to determine their very own behaviour, the kind of properties leaders have may make a difference in leadership potential. In large, bureaucratic, and rule-bound institutions such as the government and the military, a leader traits may have less to perform with just how the human being behaves and also whether the human is a successful leader (Judge et al., 2002). Moreover, some traits end up being relevant in details circumstances. For example, courage is likely to it is in a vital characteristic in armed forces leaders, however not have to in business leaders. Scholars now conclude that rather of trying to determine a couple of traits that distinguish leaders indigenous nonleaders, that is crucial to identify the conditions under which different traits impact a leader’s performance, and also whether a person emerges as a leader (Hackman & Wageman, 2007).
Many studies sought a minimal set of personal attributes, or traits, which would make who be regarded as a leader and also be successful as a leader. Some traits that are consistently related to leadership encompass intelligence (both mental capacity and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity. The main limitation that the trait method was the it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred. Therefore, the is an ext useful come specify the problems under which various traits are needed.
ExercisesThink that a leader girlfriend admire. What traits go this human have? are they consistent with the traits questioned in this chapter? If not, why is this human being effective regardless of the existence of different traits?Can the result of traits philosophies be provided to train potential leaders? which traits seem less complicated to teach? i m sorry are more stable?How deserve to organizations determine future leaders v a given collection of traits? Which methods would be helpful for this purpose?What other traits deserve to you think of that would certainly be relevant to leadership?
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Buckmaster, J. (2008, May). How does that manage? share website boss. Management Today, 15.
Farrell, G., & Davidson, P. (2007, July 13). Totality Foods’ CEO to be busy male online. USA Today, Money section, p. 04B.
Goleman, D. (January, 2004). What provides a leader? Harvard organization Review, 82(1), 82–91.
Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (2007). Questioning the ideal questions around leadership: Discussion and conclusions. American Psychologist, 62, 43–47.
House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study that leadership: Quo Vadis? Journal the Management, 23, 409–473.
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Karlgaard, R. (2002, February 18). Poll Carly. Forbes, 169(4), 37.
Lord, R. G., De Vader, C. L., & Alliger, G. M. (1986). A meta-analysis of the relation in between personality traits and also leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures. Journal of used Psychology, 71, 402–410.
Niebuhr, R. E., & Davis, K. R. (1984). Self-esteem: connection with leader behaviour perceptions together moderated through the term of the superior-subordinate dyad association. Personality and also Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 51–59.
Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices associated to leadership effectiveness. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 655–687.
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Taggar, S., Hackett, R., & Saha, S. (1999). Leadership emergence in autonomous work teams: Antecedents and also outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 52, 899–926.