Key Points

The Peloponnesian War ended in victory for Sparta and its allies, but signaled the demise of Athenian naval and political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean.Democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown in 411 BCE together a an outcome of its bad handling of the Peloponnesian War. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to to organize the Thirty Tyrants together Athens’ federal government for the 13 month they maintained power.Lysander established numerous pro-Spartan governments throughout the Aegean, where the ruling classes were an ext loyal to him than to Sparta as a whole. Eventually Spartan kings, Agis and Pausanias, abolished this Aegean decarchies, curbing Lysander’s politics influence.Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the duration of Spartan hegemony, and is remembered because that his multiple campaigns in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories.Agesilaus’s loss at the battle of Leuctra efficiently ended Spartan hegemony transparent the region.

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Terms

hegemony

The political, economic, or armed forces predominance or control of one state end others.

harmosts

A Spartan term for a army governor.

oligarchy

A form of power framework in i beg your pardon a small group of people hold all power and influence in a state.


The Peloponnesian War ended in victory for Sparta and its allies, and also led straight to the rising naval power of Sparta. However, it significant the demise of Athenian naval and political hegemony transparent the Mediterranean. The devastation from the Peloponnesian battle weakened and also divided the Greeks because that years come come, eventually permitting the Macedonians an chance to dominate them in the mid-4th century BCE.

Athens

Democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown in 411 BCE together a an outcome of its poor handling of the Peloponnesian War. Citizens reacted against Athens’ defeat, blaming autonomous politicians, such together Cleon and also Cleophon. The Spartan army encouraged revolt, installing a pro-Spartan oligarchy in ~ Athens, dubbed the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, assisted to theorem the Thirty Tyrants together a federal government for the 13 months they kept power.

During the Thirty Tyrants’ rule, 5 percent the the Athenian populace was killed, personal property to be confiscated, and also democratic supporters were exiled. The Thirty appointed a the supervisory board of 500 to serve the judicial features that had previously belonged to all citizens. In spite of all this, no all Athenian men had actually their rights removed. In fact, 3,000 such guys were liked by the Thirty to share in the federal government of Athens. These men were allowed to lug weapons, entitled to jury trial, and enabled to reside with the city limits. This list of men was constantly being revised, and selection was most likely a enjoy of commitment to the regime, with the majority of Athenians not sustaining the Thirty Tyrants’ rule.

Nonetheless, the Thirty’s regimen was not met with much overt opposition because that the majority of their rule, together a an outcome of the harsh penalties inserted on dissenters. Eventually, the level of violence and brutality carried out by the Thirty in Athens led to raised opposition, stemming mainly from a rebel group of exiles led by Thrasybulus, a previous trierarch in the Athenian navy. The increased opposition culminated in a revolution that eventually overthrew the Thirty’s regime. In the aftermath, Athens gave amnesty come the 3,000 males who were offered special treatment under the regime, through the exemption of those who consisted of the administer Thirty and also their linked governmental officials. Athens struggled to recuperate from the upheaval brought about by the Thirty Tyrants in the years that followed.

Sparta

As a an outcome of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, which had primarily been a continental culture, ended up being a marine power. At its peak, Sparta overpowered many crucial Greek states, including the upstream Athenian navy. By the finish of the fifth century BCE, Sparta’s successes versus the Athenian empire and ability to attack Persian districts in Anatolia ushered in a duration of Spartan hegemony. This hegemonic period was to it is in short-lived, however.

Lysander

After the end of the Peloponnesian War, Lysander established numerous pro-Spartan federal governments throughout the Aegean. Most of the judgment systems set up through Lysander to be ten-man oligarchies, referred to as decarchies, in i beg your pardon harmosts, Spartan army governors, to be the heads of the government. Because Lysander appointed from within the ruling classes of this governments, the men were an ext loyal come Lysander than Sparta, making this Aegean outposts similar to a personal empire.

Lysander and also Spartan king Agis to be in covenant with Corinth and Thebes that Athens have to be totally destroyed in the consequences of the Peloponnesian War, but they to be opposed by a much more moderate faction, headed by Pausanias. Eventually, Pausanias’ center faction obtained the top hand and also Athens to be spared, despite its defensive walls and also port fortifications in ~ Piraeus to be demolished. Lysander also managed to require Athens to recall its exiles, bring about political instability within the city-state, of i beg your pardon Lysander took benefit to create the oligarchy that happened known as the Thirty Tyrants. Due to the fact that Lysander was likewise directly involved in the an option of the Thirty, these men were faithful to him end Sparta, leading to King Agis and also King Pausanias come agree come the abolishment the his Aegean decarchies, and also eventually the repair of democracy in Athens, which conveniently curbed Lysander’s politics influence.


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Lysander. A 16th century sculpture of Lysander


 

Agesilaus and His Campaigns

Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings throughout the duration of Spartan hegemony. Lysander was one of Agesilaus’s greatest supporters, and was even a mentor. Throughout his kingship, Agesilaus carried out a number of military campaigns in the east Aegean and Persian territories. Throughout these campaigns, the Spartans under Agesilaus’s command met with countless rebelling Greek poleis, consisting of the Thebans. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and also Athenians had rebelled during the Corinthian battle from 395-386 BCE, and also the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and also Athenians against the Spartans.

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During the winter of 379/378 BCE, a group of Theban exiles snuck into Thebes and succeeded in liberating it, in spite of resistance indigenous a 1,500-strong Spartan garrison. This led to a variety of Spartan expeditions against Thebes, known as The Boeotian War. The Greek city-states ultimately attempted come broker peace, however Theban diplomat Epaminondas angered Agesilaus by saying for the freedom of non-Spartan citizens in ~ Laconia. Together a result, Agesilaus to exclude, the Thebans native the treaty, and the fight of Leuctra damaged out in 371 BCE; the Spartans eventually lost. Sparta’s international political affect precipitated quickly after your defeat.