A CPU-scheduling algorithm identify an order for the execution of its scheduled processes. Provided n processes to be booked on one processor, how numerous different schedules are possible? offer a formula in terms of n.

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The total number of schedules feasible (number of means to stimulate n distinctive objects in a sequence) is n!
CPU-scheduling decisions may take location under the following four circumstances:When a process switches native the running state to the wait state (for example, as the an outcome of an I/0 inquiry or one invocation of wait because that the termination of among the kid processes).When a process switches indigenous the running state come the all set state (for example, as soon as an interrupt occurs).When a process switches native the wait state come the ready state (for example, at completion of I/0).When a process terminates.When scheduling takes ar only under situations 1 and also 4, us say that the scheduling system is non-preemptive or cooperative; otherwise, the is preemptive.
Suppose that the following processes arrive for execution at the time indicated. Each procedure will operation for the amount of time listed. In answering the questions, usage nonpreemptive scheduling, and also base every decisions on the information you have at the moment the decision should be made. Process Arrival Time burst Time P1 0.0 8 P2 0.4 4 P3 1.0 1a. What is the typical turnaround time for these procedures with the FCFS scheduling algorithm?
P1 executes and then we uncover P3 is a shorter procedure than P2.P1 → P3 → P2 = ( 8 + (9 - 1) + (13 - 0.4)) / 3 = 9.53
c. The SJF algorithm is an alleged to boost performance, but notification that we decided to run process P1 in ~ time 0 due to the fact that we did not know that two shorter processes would arrive soon. Compute what the median turnaround time will be if the CPU is left idle because that the first 1 unit and then SJF scheduling is used. Mental that procedures P1 and also P2 space waiting during this idle time, so their waiting time might increase. This algorithm might be known as future-knowledge scheduling.
Idle because that 1, then use SJF. P3 shortest, P2 following shortest, P1 longest.Idle → P3 → P2 → P1 = ((2 - 1) + ( 6 - 0.4 ) + ( 14 - 0)) / 3 = 6.87
What advantage is over there in having different time-quantum sizes at various levels of a multilevel queueing system?
By using different time-quantum sizes, you can enable processes with shorter quantum and also frequent procedures with quick execution time to it is in serviced quickly while procedures with large quantum can be in an additional queue.
Suppose the a scheduling algorithm (at the level of short-term CPU scheduling) favors those processes that have used the least processor time in the current past. Why will certainly this algorithm donate I/O-bound programs and yet no permanently starve CPU-bound programs?
I/O-bound programs would certainly not require much CPU usage, having brief CPU bursts. CPU-bound programs require large CPU bursts. CPU-bound processes perform not need to worry around starvation since I/O tied programs end up running quickly permitting CPU-bound program to use the CPU often.
Process contention scope (PCS) scheduling is performed neighborhood to each process. Device contention scope (SCS) scheduling is perform on the operating device with kernel threads. On systems that use many-to-one or many-to-many, PCS and SCS scheduling is different. On solution using one-to-one, PCS and also SCS scheduling is the same.
I/O-bound programs have actually the residential or commercial property of performing just a little amount the computation prior to performing I/O. Such programs typically do not use up their whole CPU quantum. CPU-bound programs, top top the other hand, usage their entire quantum without performing anyblocking I/O operations. Consequently, one could make much better use that the computer"s resouces by giving higher priority to I/O-bound programs and allow them to execute front of the CPU-bound programs.
Discuss exactly how the complying with pairs of scheduling criteria conflict in certainsettings. A. CPU use and an answer time
CPU utilization and an answer time: CPU use is increased if the overheads connected with context switching is minimized. The context switching overheads might be lower by performing paper definition switches infrequently. This could, however, result in boosting the an answer time for processes.
Average come back time and maximum wait time: average turnaround time is reduced by executing the shortest jobs first. Such a scheduling plan could, however, starve long-runningtasks and also thereby increase their wait time.

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I/O maker utilization and CPU utilization: CPU use is maximized by running long-running CPU-bound work without performing context switches. I/O an equipment utilization is maximized byscheduling I/O-bound work as soon as they become ready to run, thereby incurring the overheads of paper definition switches.